Impact of Topography on Soil Properties in Delboatwaro Subwatershed, Southern Ethiopia

Befekadu Gebrehanna *

Department of Chemistry, College of Teachers Education, Hossana, Ethiopia.

Sheleme Beyene

Department of Soil Sciences, College of Agriculture, Hawassa University, P.O. Box-05, Hawassa, Ethiopia.

Girma Abera

Department of Soil Sciences, College of Agriculture, Hawassa University, P.O. Box-05, Hawassa, Ethiopia.

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.


Abstract

Soil characterization and classification are prerequisites for better agricultural productivity and sustainable soil fertility management. This study was previously conducted to characterize and classify DelboAtwaro, a watershed in southern Ethiopia. Three pedons classes were inspected and three representative pits (pedons) opened, i.e. one in each pedon. Pedons were described in accordance with FAO [1] and WRB (2014) in the study area, and then soil samples were collected from recognized horizons of each pedon and analyzed for selected physicochemical properties. The pedons confirmed the variability of the physical, chemical and morphological properties of the soils in the study area. Based on the result of field and laboratory soil analysis, the soil structure was early clay in both aboveground and subterranean strata. The soil chemical reaction used to be somewhat acidic to neutral in reaction (pH 6.1-7.0). The organic carbon (OC) content varied between 1.23 and 1.78% between the respective topographical positions. The cationexchange capacity (CEC) of the soils ranged from 39.8 to 79.9 cmol (+) kg-1 (intermediate to optimal), while the percent base saturation (PBS) ranged from 23.7 to 40.7%. The dominance of the exchangeable bases was once, in descending order, Ca>Mg>K>Na. Soils ranged from low to optimal in TN and very low to low in available P, while the concentrations of micronutrients in the soils were best (Fe), very high (Mn), adequate (Zn), and optimum (Cu). The soil had a molly epipedon with humic diagnostic houses in the subsurface. Hence the soil was categorized as Rhodic Nitisols (Haplic) (US, MS, and LS) according to the WRB for soil resources. In general, slope and land use influenced soil properties in the different topographical locations of the Delbo Atwaro Underwater Catchment, suggesting the need for integrated soil fertility management to sustainably conserve soil organic matter and nutrients.

Keywords: Classification, pedons, soil characterization, soil properties, topographic position


How to Cite

Gebrehanna , B., Beyene , S., & Abera , G. (2022). Impact of Topography on Soil Properties in Delboatwaro Subwatershed, Southern Ethiopia. Asian Journal of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, 8(4), 34–50. https://doi.org/10.9734/ajsspn/2022/v8i4166

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization). Plant Nutrition for Food Security: A guide for integrated nutrient management. Fertilizer and Plant Nutrition Bulletin 16, Rome, Italy; 2006.

Fantaw Y, Ledin S, Abdu A. Soil property variations in relation to topographic aspect and vegetation community in southeastern highlands of Ethiopia.Forest Eco. Manage. 2006; 232:90-99.

Mulugeta D, Sheleme B. Characterization and classification of soils along the toposequence of KindoKoye watershed in southern Ethiopia. East Afr. J. Sci. 2010;4 (2):65-77.

Dinku D, Sheleme B, Nand R, Fran W, Tekleab G. Effects of Topography and land use on soil characteristics along the toposequence of Ele watershed in southern Ethiopia. Catena. 2014;115:47-54.

Teshome Y, Sheleme B, Kibebew K. Characterization and classification of soils of Abobo area, western Ethiopia. Applied and Environ. Soil Sci. 2016;1-16.

Wang J, Fu B, Qiu Y, Chen L. Soil nutrients in relation to land use and landscape position in semi-arid small catchment of the loess plateau in China. J. Arid Environ. 2001;48:537-550.

Wakene N, Heluf G. The impact of different land use systems on soil quality of western Ethiopia Alfisols. International Research on Food Security: Natural Resource Management and Rural Poverty Reduction through Research for Development and Transformation. Deutcher Tropentage-Berlin 5-7 October2004. 2004;1-7.

FAO. Soil map of the world. FAO, Rome; 1974.

Bremner JM, Mulvaney CS. Nitrogen total in methods of Soil Analysis.In: Page, A.L.(ed.), Part 2. Chemical and microbiological properties. SSSA, Madison, Wisconsin; 1982.

David MM. Soil genesis and classification of ten pedons using soil characterization laboratory data and field soil survey in cades cove, Great Smoky Mountains National Park. Master’s Thesis, University of Tennessee- Knoxville; 2005. Available:http://trace.tennessee. Edu/utk_ gradthes/3269.

Ashenafi A, Abayneh E, Sheleme B. Characterizing soils of DelboWegene watershed, Wolaita Zone, Southern Ethiopia for planning appropriate land management. Journal of Soil Science and Environmental Management. 2010;1(8): 184-199.

Mulugeta D, Sheleme B, Mulugeta L. Impact of slope position on soil carbon and total nitrogen stocks along a catena in KindoKoye watershed, southern Ethiopia. Ethiopian J. Nat. Res. 2012;12(2): 185-195.

Cools N, De Vos B. Sampling and analysis of soil.Manual part. In: Manual on Methods and Criteria for Harmonized Sampling, Assessment. 2010;208.

Ahn PM. Tropical Soils and Fertility Use. Longman Group UK limited, UK; 1993.

Satyavathi PLA, Suryanarayan MR. Characterization and classification of shallow, medium deep and deep red and black soils of Northern Telangana zone in Andhra Pradesh. Journal of Tropical Agriculture. 2003;41:23-29.

Young A. Tropical soils and soil survey. Cambridge University Press, London, United Kingdom; 1976.

Ashaye TY. Sesquioxides status and particle size distribution in twelve Nigeria soils derived from sand stones. African Soils. 1969;14:85-96.

Abayneh E. Characteristics, genesis and classification of reddish soils from Sidamo, Ethiopia. Doctoral dissertation, University of Putra, Malaysia; 2005.

Basava RD, Naidu MVS, Ramavatharama N, Venkalah K, Rama Rao G, Reddy KS. Characterization, classification and evaluation of soils in Chandragirimandal of Chittoor District, Andhra Pradesh. Agropedology. 2005;15:55-62.

White PF, Oberthur T, Sovuthy P. Soils used for rice production in Cambodia. A manual for their recognition and management. Manila (Philippines): International Rice Research Institute; 1997.

FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization). Salt- affected soils and their management. FAO Soil Bulletin 39. Rome, Italy; 1988.

Tekalign T. Soil, plant, water, fertilizer, animal manure and compost analysis. Working document No. 13.International Livestock Research Center for Africa, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia; 1991.

Ethiopian Soil Information System (EthioSIS). Soil fertility status and fertilizer recommendation atlas of the Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples' Regional State, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia; 2016.

Alem H, Kibebew K, Heluf G. Characterization and classification of soils of KabeSubwatershed in south Wollo Zone, Northeastern Ethiopia. African Journal of Soil Science. 2015;3(7):134-146.

Nahusenay A, Kibebew K, Heluf G, Abayneh E. Characterization and classification of soils along the toposequence at the WadlaDelanta Massif, North Central Highlands of Ethiopia. Journal of Ecology and the Natural Environment. 2014;6(9):304-320. DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/jene2014. 0463.

Awdenegest M, Melku D, Fantaw Y. Land use effects on soil quality indicators: A case study of Abo-Wonsho Southern Ethiopia. Applied and Environmental Soil Science. Hindawi Publishing Corporation; 2013.

Landon JR. (ed.). Booker Tropical Soil Manual: A handbook for Soil Survey and agricultural land evaluation in the tropics and subtropics. Longman Scientific and Technical publisher, New York, USA; 1991.

Sims JT. Soil fertility evaluation. Pp.113-127. In: Sumner, M.E. (ed.) Handbook of Soil Science. CRC Press, Boca Raton; 2000.

Eckert DJ. Soil test interpretations. Basic cation saturation ratios and sufficiency levels.Soil Science Society of America Special Publication. 1987;21: 53-64.

Fisseha I. Macro and micronutrients distribution in Ethiopian Vertisols landscapes. Ph.D. Dissertation submitted to Institute fur Bondenkunde und Standortslehre, University of Hohenheim, Germany; 1992.

Alemayehu K, Sheleme B. Effects of different land use systems on selected soil properties in Southern Ethiopia. J. Soil Sci. Environ. Manage. 2013;4(5):100-107.

Broderson DW. From the surface down: An Introduction to Soil Surveys for Agronomic Use. United States Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC; 1994.

Buzuayehu T, Gezahegn A, Yigezu A, Jabbar MA, Paulos D. Nature and causes of land degradation in the Oromiya Region: A review on Socio-economic and Policy Research Working Paper 36. ILRI (International Livestock Research Institute), Nairobi, Kenya; 2002.

Cottenie A. Soil and plant testing as a basis of fertilizer recommendations.FAO soil bulletin 38/2.Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, Italy; 1980.

Dengiz O, Saglam M, Sarioglu FE, Saygin F, Atasoy C. Morphological and physicochemical characteristics and classification of Vertisols developed on Deltaic Plain. Open Journal Soil Science. 2012;2:20-27.

Habtamu K, Husien O, Haimanote B, Tegenu, E, Charles F, Amy S, Tammo S. The effect of land use on plant nutrient availability and carbon sequestration. Proceedings of the 10th conference, March 25-27. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. 2009;208-219.

Loide V. About the effect of the contents and ratios of soil’s available calcium, potassium and magnesium in liming of acid soils. Agronomy Research. 2004;2(1):71-82.

Moradi S. Impacts of organic carbon on consistency limits in different soil textures. International Journal of Agriculture and Crop Science. 2013;5(12):1381-1388.

Britz W, Jafari Y, Nekhay O, Roson R. Assessing inequality and poverty in long-term growth projections: A general equilibrium analysis for six developing countries. Econ Modell. 2022;117: 106066.

Dreher A. IMF conditionality: Theory and evidence. Public Choice. 2009;141(1-2):233-67.

Dessalegn D, Beyene S, Ram N, Walley F, Gala TS. Effects of topography and land use on soil characteristics along the toposequence of Ele watershed in southern Ethiopia. CATENA. 2014;115:47-54.

Bahir AL, Ahmed MA, Antille DL. Land suitability evaluation to optimize land management of small-scale farms in the Gerado catchment, North-Eastern Ethiopia. Trop Agric. 2015;92(1):49-68

Nyssen J, Poesen J, Haile M, Moeyersons J, Deckers J. Tillage erosion on slopes with soil conservation structures in the Ethiopian Highlands. Soil Till Res. 2000;57(3):115-27.

Moscatelli MC, Marabottini R, Massaccesi L, Marinari S. Soil properties changes after seven years of ground mounted photovoltaic panels in Central Italy coastal area. Geoderma Reg. 2022;29:e00500.

Schmidt JP, Buol SW, Kamprath EJ. Soil phosphorus dynamics during 17 years of continuous cultivation: a method to estimate long-term P availability. Geoderma. 1997;78(1-2):59-70.

Kamiri HW, Mutuku D, Ndufa J, Kiama S. Exploring the distribution of soil properties across an open-grazed pastoral system in Laikipia rangelands, Kenya. Arid Land Res Manag. 2022;36(4):465-82.

Xiao, Yang, Guo B, Lu Y, Zhang R, Zhang D et al. Spatial–temporal evolution patterns of soil erosion in the Yellow River Basin from 1990 to 2015: Impacts of natural factors and land use change. Geom Nat Hazards Risk. 2021;12(1):103-22.

Sutherland RA, Ziegler AD. Effectiveness of coir-based rolled erosion control systems in reducing sediment transport from hillslopes. Appl Geogr. 2007;27(3-4):150-64.

Gessesse B, Bewket W, Bräuning A. Model‐based characterization and monitoring of runoff and soil erosion in response to land use/land cover changes in the Modjo watershed, Ethiopia. Land Degrad Dev. 2015;26(7):711-24.

Araya T, Nyssen J, Govaerts B, Lanckriet S, Baudron F, Deckers J et al. Eight years of Conservation Agriculture-based cropping systems research in eastern Africa to conserve soil and water and mitigate effects of climate change. In: Admin S EGU Gen Assembly Conference. 2014; 86.

Bewket W, Teferi E. Assessment of soil erosion hazard and prioritization for treatment at the watershed level: case study in the Chemoga watershed, Blue Nile Basin, Ethiopia. Land Degrad Dev. 2009;20(6):609-22.

Haile GW, Fetene M. Assessment of soil erosion hazard in Kilie catchment, East Shoa, Ethiopia. Land Degrad Dev. 2012; 23(3):293-306.

Buraka T, Elias E, Suryabhagavan KV, Lelago A. Assessment of soil erosion risks in response to land-use and land-cover changes in CoKa watershed, Southern Ethiopia. Geol Ecol Landscapes. 2022:1-14.

Tesfaye G, Assefa A, Kidane D. Runoff, sediment load and land use/cover change relationship: the case of Maybar sub-watershed, South Wollo, Ethiopia. Int J River Basin Manag. 2017;15(1):89-101.

Kicińska A, Pomykała R, Izquierdo‐Diaz M. Changes in soil pH and mobility of heavy metals in contaminated soils. Eur J Soil Sci. 2022;73(1):e13203.

Clingensmith CM, Grunwald S. Predicting soil properties and interpreting Vis-NIR models from across continental United States. Sensors (Basel). 2022;22(9):3187.

Hazelton P, Murphy B. Interpreting soil test results: what do all the numbers mean? CSIRO Publishing; 2016.

Dhaliwal SS, Sharma V, Kaur J, Shukla AK, Hossain A, Abdel-Hafez SH et al. The pedospheric variation of DTPA-extractable Zn, Fe, Mn, Cu and other physicochemical characteristics in major soil orders in existing land use systems of Punjab, India. Sustainability. 2022;14(1):29.

Kiflu A, Beyene S. Effects of different land use systems on selected soil properties in South Ethiopia. J Soil Sci Environ Manage. 2013;4(5):100-7.

Sharma N, Wang Z, Catalano JG, Giammar DE. Dynamic responses of trace metal bioaccessibility to fluctuating redox conditions in wetland soils and stream sediments. ACS Earth Space Chem. 2022; 6(5):1331-44.

Najafi-Ghiri M, Boostani HR, Hardie AG. Release of potassium from some heated calcareous soils to different solutions. Arch Agron Soil Sci. 2023;69(1):90-103.

Abebe M, Zeit D. Irrigation for sustainable agricultural development in Ethiopia. Ethiop J Agric Sci. 2015;25(1):31-44.

Carter MR. Soil quality for sustainable land management: organic matter and aggregation interactions that maintain soil functions. Agron J. 2002;94(1):38-47.

Coomes OT, McGuire SJ, Garine E, Caillon S, McKey D, Demeulenaere E et al. Farmer seed networks make a limited contribution to agriculture? Four common misconceptions. Food Policy. 2015;56:41-50.

Xu Y, Sismour E, Britland JW, Sellers A, Abraha-Eyob Z, Yousuf A et al. Physicochemical, structural, and functional properties of hemp protein vs several commercially available plant and animal proteins: A comparative study. ACS Food Sci Technol. 2022;2(10):1672-80.