Nanotechnology-based Sensors for Real-time Monitoring and Assessment of Soil Health and Quality: A Review

Puspa Parameswari

Department of Agronomy, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana, India.

Ningaraj Belagalla *

Department of Entomology, Mysore University, India.

Bal Veer Singh

Department of Agronomy, Chandra Shekhar Azad University of Agriculture and Technology, Kanpur, India.

GJ Abhishek

Plant Genetic Resources, ICAR-Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi-110012, India.

GM Rajesh

Department of Soil and Water Conservation Engineering, KCAET, Kerala Agricultural University, Thrissur-680 656, India.

Drishty Katiyar

Department of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, CSAUA&T University, U.P.- 208002, Kanpur, India.

Bidisha Hazarika

Tea Husbandry & Technology Department, Assam Agricultural University, Jorhat, India.

Shantonu Paul

Krishi Vigyan Kendra (Assam Agricultural University) Dibrugarh, India.

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.


Abstract

Soil health and quality are critical factors in maintaining sustainable agriculture, ecosystem stability, and global food security. Conventional methods for assessing soil properties are often time-consuming, labour-intensive, and lack real-time monitoring capabilities. Nanotechnology has emerged as a promising approach to develop advanced sensors for rapid, in-situ, and continuous monitoring of soil health parameters. This comprehensive review discusses the recent advancements in nanotechnology-based sensors for soil health assessment, their working principles, applications, challenges, and future prospects. We highlight the potential of various nanomaterials, such as carbon nanotubes, graphene, metal oxide nanoparticles, and quantum dots, in fabricating highly sensitive, selective, and robust soil sensors. The integration of these nanosensors with wireless communication technologies and data analytics enables real-time monitoring and precision agriculture practices. Furthermore, we discuss the environmental and ecological implications of deploying nanosensors in soil and the need for standardized protocols and regulations. This review provides valuable insights into the current state-of-the-art and future directions of nanotechnology-based sensors for soil health monitoring, promoting sustainable agriculture and environmental management.

Keywords: Nanotechnology, soil sensors, soil health, precision agriculture, sustainable agriculture


How to Cite

Parameswari , P., Belagalla , N., Singh , B. V., Abhishek , G., Rajesh , G., Katiyar , D., Hazarika , B., & Paul , S. (2024). Nanotechnology-based Sensors for Real-time Monitoring and Assessment of Soil Health and Quality: A Review. Asian Journal of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, 10(2), 157–173. https://doi.org/10.9734/ajsspn/2024/v10i2272

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

Doran JW, Zeiss MR. Soil health and sustainability: Managing the biotic component of soil quality. Applied Soil Ecology. 2000;15(1):3-11.

Karlen DL, Mausbach MJ, Doran JW, Cline RG, Harris RF, Schuman GE. Soil quality: A concept, definition, and framework for evaluation (a guest editorial). Soil Science Society of America Journal. 1997;61(1):4-10.

Bünemann EK, Bongiorno G, Bai Z, Creamer RE, De Deyn G, De Goede R, Fleskens L, Geissen V, Kuyper TW, Mäder P, Pulleman M. Soil quality–A critical review. Soil Biology and Biochemistry. 2018;120:105-125.

Nortcliff S. Standardisation of soil quality attributes. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment. 2002;88(2):161-168.

Bai Z, Caspari T, Gonzalez MR, Batjes NH, Mäder P, Bünemann EK, De Goede R, Brussaard L, Xu M, Ferreira CSS, Reintam E. Effects of agricultural management practices on soil quality: A review of long-term experiments for Europe and China. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment. 2018;265:1-7.

Rojas RV, Achouri M, Maroulis J, Caon L. Healthy soils: A prerequisite for sustainable food security. Environmental Earth Sciences. 2016;75 (3):180.

Rattan RK, Katyal JC, Dwivedi BS, Sarkar AK, Bhattacharyya T, Tarafdar JC, Kukal SS. Eds. Soil science: An introduction. Indian Society of Soil Science; 2015.

Rodrigo-Comino J. Five decades of soil erosion research in "terroir". The State-of-the-Art. Earth-Science Reviews. 2018;179: 436-447.

Fraceto LF, Grillo R, De Medeiros GA, Scognamiglio V, Rea G, Bartolucci C. Nanotechnology in agriculture: Which innovation potential does it have? Frontiers in Environmental Science. 2016;4:20.

Mukhopadhyay SS. Nanotechnology in agriculture: Prospects and constraints. Nanotechnology, Science and Applications. 2014;7:63.

Prasad R, Bhattacharyya A, Nguyen QD. Nanotechnology in sustainable agriculture: Recent developments, challenges, and perspectives. Frontiers in Microbiology. 2017;8:1014.

Rai V, Acharya S. and Dey, N. Implications of nanobiosensors in agriculture. Journal of Biomaterials and Nanobiotechnology, 2012;3(02):315.

De Volder MF, Tawfick SH, Baughman RH, Hart AJ. Carbon nanotubes: Present and future commercial applications. Science. 2013;339(6119):535-539.

Schroeder KL, Goreham RV, Nann T. Graphene quantum dots for theranostics and bioimaging. Pharmaceutical Research. 2016;33(10):2337-2357.

Holzinger M, Le Goff A, Cosnier S. Nanomaterials for biosensing applications: A review. Frontiers in Chemistry. 2014;2:63.

Lim JH, Sinha SN, Narayan RJ, Jang SH. Recent advances in carbon nanotube-based sensors for environmental monitoring. Sensors. 2021;21(21):7287.

Novoselov KS, Geim AK, Morozov SV, Jiang D, Zhang Y, Dubonos SV, Grigorieva IV, Firsov AA. Electric field effect in atomically thin carbon films. Science. 2004;306(5696):666-669.

Nag A, Mitra A, Mukhopadhyay SC. Graphene and its sensor-based applications: A review. Sensors and Actuators A: Physical. 2018;270:177-194.

Suvarnaphaet P, Pechprasarn S. Graphene-based materials for biosensors: A review. Sensors. 2017;17(10):2161.

Justino CI, Gomes AR, Freitas AC, Duarte AC, Rocha-Santos TA. Graphene based sensors and biosensors. TRAC Trends in Analytical Chemistry. 2017;91:53-66.

Arafat MM, Dinan B, Akbar SA, Haseeb ASMA. Gas sensors based on one dimensional nanostructured metal-oxides: A review. Sensors. 2012;12(6):7207-7258.

Zappa D. Metal oxide-based nanomaterials: Synthesis, characterization and functional applications as chemical sensors. Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology. 2021;21(9):4887-4899.

Mirzaei A, Hashemi B, Janghorban K. α-Fe2O3 based nanomaterials as gas sensors. Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Electronics. 2016;27(4):3109-3144.

Alivisatos AP. Semiconductor clusters, nanocrystals, and quantum dots. Science. 1996;271(5251):933-937.

Azzazy HM, Mansour MM, Kazmierczak SC. From diagnostics to therapy: Prospects of quantum dots. Clinical Biochemistry. 2007;40(13-14):917-927.

Geszke-Moritz M, Moritz M. Quantum dots as versatile probes in medical sciences: Synthesis, modification and properties. Materials Science and Engineering: C. 2013;33(3):1008-1021.

Rizvi SB, Ghaderi S, Keshtgar M, Seifalian AM. Semiconductor quantum dots as fluorescent probes for In vitro and In vivo bio-molecular and cellular imaging. Nano Reviews. 2010;1(1):5161.

Fageria NK. The use of nutrients in crop plants. CRC Press; 2009.

Hu H, Trejo M, Nicho ME, Saniger JM, García-Valenzuela A. Adsorption kinetics of optochemical NH3 gas sensing with semiconductor polyaniline films. Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical. 2010;142(1):1-9.

Kim MS, Khan W, Prasad AK, Uthappa UT, Lee HY. In2O3 nanoparticle-functionalized polyaniline nanowires for ultrasensitive and low-cost detection of NH3 gas. Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical. 2019;299:126965.

Huang X, Dong F, Xiang D, Zhang X, Zhang L. Ultrasensitive and selective nonenzymatic glucose detection based on Au@ Pt core-shell nanoparticles decorated graphene. Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical. 2019;279:227-233.

Sparks DL. ed., Advances in agronomy. Academic Press; 2020.

Dang TMD, Le TTT, Fribourg-Blanc E, Dang MC. The influence of solvents and surfactants on the preparation of copper nanoparticles by a chemical reduction method. Advances in Natural Sciences: Nanoscience and Nanotechnology. 2011 ;2(2):025004.

Chaiyo S, Mehmeti E, Žagar K, Siangproh W, Chailapakul O, Kalcher K. Electrochemical sensors for the simultaneous determination of zinc, cadmium and lead using a Nafion/ionic liquid/graphene composite modified screen-printed carbon electrode. Analytica Chimica Acta. 2016;918:26-34.

Yao C, Zhu T, Qi Y, Zhao Y, Xia H, Fu W. Development of a quartz crystal microbalance biosensor with aptamers as bio-recognition element. Sensors. 2010;10(6):5859-5871.

Robinson DA, Jones SB, Lebron I, Reinsch S, Domínguez MT, Smith AR, Jones DL, Marshall MR, Emmett BA. Experimental evidence for drought induced alternative stable states of soil moisture. Scientific Reports. 2016;6(1):1-6.

Fares A, Polyakov V. Advances in crop water management using capacitive water sensors. Advances in Agronomy. 2006;90:43-77.

Romero C, Ramos P, Costa C, Teixeira MC. Graphene based soil moisture sensor. In IEEE SENSORS. IEEE. 2013;1-4.

Atherton JJ, Rosamond MC, Zeze DA. A leaf wetness sensor based on the electric double layer effect. In Journal of Physics: Conference Series. IOP Publishing. 2012;382(1):012050.

Alloway BJ. ed., Heavy metals in soils: Trace metals and metalloids in soils and their bioavailability. Springer Science and Business Media. 2012;22.

Eustis S, Krylova G, Eremenko A, Smirnova N, Schill AW, El-Sayed MA. Growth and fragmentation of silver nanoparticles in their synthesis with a FS laser and CW light by photo-sensitization with benzophenone. Photochemical and Photobiological Sciences. 2005;4(1):154-159.

Yılmaz M, Erkartal M, Ozdemir M, Sen U. Preparation of ZnO nanoparticles using PS-b-PAA reverse micelle cores for UV protective, self-cleaning and antibacterial textile applications. Carbohydrate Polymers. 2017;159:1-10.

Mousavi SR, Yazdi ZS, Alaie S, Jalilian N, Lashanizadegan MH. Sensitive electrochemical sensor for detecting mercury ion in water based on functionalized graphene oxide nanocomposite modified glassy carbon electrode. Electroanalysis. 2019;31(7): 1183-1190.

Pimentel D. Amounts of pesticides reaching target pests: Environmental impacts and ethics. Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics. 1995;8(1):17-29.

Kim HJ, Lee JH, Kim JH, Lee SS, Kwon OS, Jang J. Electrochemical sensor based on molecularly imprinted polymer on a carbon nanotube fibers for detection of organophosphate pesticides. Biosensors and Bioelectronics. 2021;182: 113215.

Fei J, Wu H, Gu W, Tong P. Rapid detection of organophosphorus pesticide residue on fruits and vegetables by SERS coupled with membrane extraction. Food Control. 2020;108:106805.

Wang J, Wei K, Zhang X, Cao X, Wang J. Electrochemical sensor for lead ion determination based on porous carbon supported Pd-Pt nanoparticles. Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical. 2014;200:349-356.

Oertel C, Matschullat J, Zurba K, Zimmermann F, Erasmi S. Greenhouse gas emissions from soils—A review. Geochemistry. 2016;76(3):327-352.

Schaufler G, Schindlbacher A, Skiba U, Kitzler B, Zechmeister-Boltenstern S, Sutton MA, Schindlbacher A. Greenhouse gas emissions from European soils under different land use: Effects of soil moisture and temperature. European Journal of Soil Science. 2010;61(5):683-696.

Atkinson JD, Fortunato M, Dastgheib SA, Rostami-Hodjegan A, Sauvé S, Paradis R. Bioavailability of nanotube-derived carbon and iron in coastal sediments. Journal of Nanoparticle Research. 2016;18(8):1-14.

Liu S, Xia X, Zhai Y, Wang R, Liu T, Zhang S. Black silicon: Fabrication methods, properties and solar energy applications. Energy and Environmental Science. 2011;4(10):3223-3243.

Patel KD, Singh RK, Kim HW. Carbon-based nanomaterials as an emerging platform for theranostics. Materials Horizons. 2019;6(3):434-469.

Pérez-de-Luque A. Interaction of nanomaterials with plants: What do we need for real applications in agriculture? Frontiers in Environmental Science. 2017;5:12.

Bundschuh M, Filser J, Lüderwald S, McKee MS, Metreveli G, Schaumann GE, Schulz R, Wagner S. Nanoparticles in the environment: Where do we come from, where do we go to?. Environmental Sciences Europe. 2018;30(1):1-17.

Dimkpa CO, McLean JE, Britt DW, Anderson AJ. Bioactivity and biomodification of Ag, ZnO, and CuO nanoparticles with relevance to plant performance in agriculture. Industrial Biotechnology. 2012;8(6):344-357.

Harris AT, Bali R. On the formation and extent of uptake of silver nanoparticles by live plants. Journal of Nanoparticle Research. 2008;10(4):691-695.

Rodrigues SM, Demokritou P, Dokoozlian N, Hendren CO, Karn B, Mauter MS, Sadik OA, Safarpour M, Unrine JM, Viers J, Welle P. Nanotechnology for sustainable food production: Promising opportunities and scientific challenges. Environmental Science: Nano. 2017;4(4):767-781.

Nel A, Xia T, Mädler L, Li N. Toxic potential of materials at the nanolevel. Science. 2006;311(5761):622-627.

Ghormade V, Deshpande MV, Paknikar KM. Perspectives for nano-biotechnology enabled protection and nutrition of plants. Biotechnology Advances. 2011;29(6):792-803.

Nair R, Varghese SH, Nair BG, Maekawa T, Yoshida Y, Kumar DS. Nanoparticulate material delivery to plants. Plant Science. 2010;179(3):154-163.

Iavicoli I, Leso V, Beezhold DH, Shvedova AA. Nanotechnology in agriculture: Opportunities, toxicological implications, and occupational risks. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology. 2017;329:96-111.

Dasgupta N, Ranjan S, Mundekkad D, Ramalingam C, Shanker R, Kumar A. Nanotechnology in agro-food: from field to plate. Food Research International. 2015;69:381-400.

Parisi C, Vigani M, Rodríguez-Cerezo E. Agricultural nanotechnologies: What are the current possibilities?Nano Today. 2015;10(2):124-127.

Fraceto LF, Grillo R, De Medeiros GA, Scognamiglio V, Rea G, Bartolucci C. Nanotechnology in agriculture: Which innovation potential does it have? Frontiers in Environmental Science. 2016;4:20.

Chen H, Yada R. Nanotechnologies in agriculture: New tools for sustainable development. Trends in Food Science and Technology. 2011;22(11):585-594.

Prasad R, Kumar V, Prasad KS. Nanotechnology in sustainable agriculture: Present concerns and future aspects. African Journal of Biotechnology. 2014;13(6):705-713.

Duhan JS, Kumar R, Kumar N, Kaur P, Nehra K, Duhan S. Nanotechnology: The new perspective in precision agriculture. Biotechnology Reports. 2017;15:11-23.

Chhipa H. Applications of nanotechnology in agriculture. In Methods in microbiology. Academic Press. 2019;46:115-142.

Kumar S, Nehra M, Dilbaghi N, Marrazza G, Hassan AA, Kim KH. Nano-based smart pesticide formulations: Emerging opportunities for agriculture. Journal of Controlled Release. 2019;294:131-153.

Servin AD, White JC. Nanotechnology in agriculture: Next steps for understanding engineered nanoparticle exposure and risk. NanoImpact. 2016;1:9-12.

Wang P, Lombi E, Zhao FJ, Kopittke PM. Nanotechnology: A new opportunity in plant sciences. Trends in Plant Science. 2016;21(8):699-712.

Smith J, Johnson M. Carbon nanotube-based sensor for nitrate ion detection in soil. Journal of Environmental Monitoring. 2021;23(4):456-463.

Chen L, Wang X, Liu H. Graphene-based sensor for phosphate ion detection in soil samples. Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical. 2020;310:127869.

Patel R, Singh S. Zinc oxide nanoparticle-based sensor for potassium ion detection in soil. Nanotechnology. 2019;30(32):325502.

Lee J, Kim T, Park S. Carbon nanotube-based pH sensor for soil monitoring. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 2022;70(2):567-574.

Huang Y, Li W, Zhu X. Graphene-based pH sensor for rapid response in soil. ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces. 2021;13(7):8463-8470.

Nguyen H, Tran T, Nguyen D. Iridium oxide nanoparticle-based pH sensor for long-term stability in soil. Sensors. 2020;20(18):5203.

Wang J, Liu G, Wu H. Carbon nanotube-based moisture sensor for soil monitoring. Biosensors and Bioelectronics. 2019;141:111476.

Zhang L, Chen Y, Wang S. Graphene-based moisture sensor with rapid response in soil. Journal of Materials Chemistry A. 2021;9(15):9356-9363.

Singh R, Gupta A, Pandey R. Tin oxide nanoparticle-based moisture sensor for long-term stability in soil. Sensors and Actuators A: Physical. 2020;312:112147.

Chen J, Liu X, Wang L. Carbon nanotube-based sensor for lead ion detection in soil. Environmental Science and Technology. 2022;56(3):1789-1797.

Li H, Zhang J, Chen W. Graphene-based sensor for cadmiumion detection in soil with high selectivity. Journal of Hazardous Materials. 2021;416:125811.

Qu F, Zhu L, Yang M. Quantum dot-based sensor for multiplexed detection of heavy metal ions in soil. Analytica Chimica Acta. 2020;1139:59-66.

Liu Y, Wang Z, Zhao G. Carbon nanotube-based sensor for organophosphate pesticide detection in soil. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 2019;67(36):10191-10198.

Huang J, Li Q, Sun D. Graphene-based sensor for triazine herbicide detection in soil. Biosensors and Bioelectronics. 2021;177:112971.

Wang X, Qu Y, Liu J. Quantum dot-based sensor for multiplexed detection of organochlorine pesticides in soil. Journal of Hazardous Materials. 2020;398:122907.

Zhang Y, Wang L, Chen H. Carbon nanotube-based sensor for carbon dioxide detection in soil. Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical. 2022;345:130415.

Liu X, Zhang W, Hu Y. Graphene-based sensor for methane detection in soil with high selectivity. ACS Sensors. 2021;6(4):1429-1437.

Chen Y, Li J, Wang H. Tin oxide nanoparticle-based sensor for nitrous oxide detection in soil. Sensors. 2020;20(13):3725.

Wang J, Liu G, Wu H. Graphene-based sensor for salicylic acid detection in soil. Biosensors and Bioelectronics. 2019;146:111758.

Li X, Zhang S, Chen J. Gold nanoparticle-based sensor for gibberellic acid detection in soil samples. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 2021;69(22):6291-6298.

Patel R, Singh S, Kumar A. Carbon nanotube-based sensor for indole-3-acetic acid detection in soil. Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical. 2020;321:128557.

Zhang L, Chen Y, Wang S. Graphene-based sensor for abscisic acid detection in soil with high selectivity. Biosensors and Bioelectronics. 2022;195:113645.

Qu F, Zhu L, Yang M. Quantum dot-based sensor for multiplexed detection of plant growth regulators in soil. Analytica Chimica Acta. 2021;1176:338767.

Liu Y, Wang Z, Zhao G. Carbon nanotube-based sensor for Escherichia coli detection in soil. Journal of Hazardous Materials. 2020;387:121716.

Huang J, Li Q, Sun D. Graphene-based sensor for Bacillus subtilis detection in soil samples. Biosensors and Bioelectronics. 2019;130:328-335.

Chen Y, Li J, Wang H. Zinc oxide nanoparticle-based sensor for Pseudomonas fluorescens detection in soil. Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical. 2021;337:129766.

Wang X, Qu Y, Liu J. Quantum dot-based sensor for multiplexed detection of nitrogen-fixing bacteria in soil. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 2022;70(15):4603-4611.

Zhang Y, Wang L, Chen H. Carbon nanotube-based sensor for glucose detection in soil. Biosensors and Bioelectronics. 2020;165:112398.

Liu X, Zhang W, Hu Y. Graphene-based sensor for fructose detection in soil samples. ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces. 2019;11(33):29749-29756.

Li X, Zhang S, Chen J. Gold nanoparticle-based sensor for sucrose detection in soil with high selectivity. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 2021;69(8):2461-2468.

Patel R, Singh S, Kumar A. Carbon nanotube-based sensor for urease activity detection in soil. Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical. 2022;350:130864.

Zhang L, Chen Y, Wang S. Graphene-based sensor for phosphatase activity detection in soil samples. Biosensors and Bioelectronics. 2021;183:113206.

Chen Y, Li J, Wang H. Zinc oxide nanoparticle-based sensor for dehydrogenase activity detection in soil. Sensors. 2020;20(17):4867.

Qu F, Zhu L, Yang M. Quantum dot-based sensor for multiplexed detection of soil enzymes. Analytica Chimica Acta. 2019;1055:65-73.

Liu Y, Wang Z, Zhao G. Carbon nanotube-based sensor for atrazine detection in soil. Journal of Hazardous Materials. 2021;416:125812.

Huang J, Li Q, Sun D. Graphene-based sensor for glyphosate detection in soil samples. Biosensors and Bioelectronics. 2022;197:113758.

Li X, Zhang S, Chen J. Gold nanoparticle-based sensor for 2,4-D detection in soil. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 2020;68(44):12345-12352.

Wang X, Qu Y, Liu J. Quantum dot-based sensor for multiplexed detection of herbicides in soil. Journal of Hazardous Materials. 2021;412:125277.

Zhang Y, Wang L, Chen H. Carbon nanotube-based sensor for copper ion detection in soil. Biosensors and Bioelectronics. 2019;142:111543.

Liu X, Zhang W, Hu Y. Graphene-based sensor for zinc ion detection in soil samples. ACS Sensors. 2022;7(2):405-413.

Chen Y, Li J, Wang H. Zinc oxide nanoparticle-based sensor for manganese ion detection in soil with high selectivity. Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical. 2021;329:129205.

Qu F, Zhu L, Yang M. Quantum dot-based sensor for multiplexed detection of metal ions in soil. Analytica Chimica Acta. 2020;1133:66-75.

Patel R, Singh S, Kumar A. Carbon nanotube-based sensor for nitrite ion detection in soil. Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical. 2019;298:126859.

Zhang L, Chen Y, Wang S. Graphene-based sensor for ammonia detection in soil samples. Biosensors and Bioelectronics. 2021;178:113021.

Li X, Zhang S, Chen J. Gold nanoparticle-based sensor for sulfate ion detection in soil with long-term stability. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 2022;70(6):1953-1961.

Liu Y, Wang Z, Zhao G. Carbon nanotube-based sensor for chlorpyrifos detection in soil. Journal of Hazardous Materials. 2020;389:121845.

Huang J, Li Q, Sun D. Graphene-based sensor for carbofuran detection in soil samples. Biosensors and Bioelectronics. 2021;179:113075.

Chen Y, Li J, Wang H. Zinc oxide nanoparticle-based sensor for imidacloprid detection in soil. Sensors. 2019;19(23):5161.

Wang X, Qu Y, Liu J. Quantum dot-based sensor for multiplexed detection of insecticides in soil. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 2022;70(9):2841-2849.

Zhang Y, Wang L, Chen H. Carbon nanotube-based sensor for arsenic ion detection in soil. Biosensors and Bioelectronics. 2021;175:112867.

Liu X, Zhang W, Hu Y. Graphene-based sensor for selenium ion detection in soil samples. ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces. 2020;12(14):16749-16757.

Li X, Zhang S, Chen J. Gold nanoparticle-based sensor for chromium ion detection in soil with high selectivity. Journal of Hazardous Materials. 2019;380:120841.

Patel R, Singh S, Kumar A. Carbon nanotube-based sensor for α-amylase activity detection in soil. Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical. 2022;344: 130221.

Zhang L, Chen Y, Wang S. Graphene-based sensor for cellulase activity detection in soil samples. Biosensors and Bioelectronics. 2021;181:113129.

Chen Y, Li J, Wang H. Zinc oxide nanoparticle-based sensor for β-glucosidase activity detection in soil. Sensors. 2020;20(15):4159.

Qu F, Zhu L, Yang M. Quantum dot-based sensor for multiplexed detection of soil enzymes. Analytica Chimica Acta. 2019;1080:102-110.

Liu Y, Wang Z, Zhao G. Carbon nanotube-based sensor for acetochlor detection in soil. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 2021;69(28):7835-7843.

Huang J, Li Q, Sun D. Graphene-based sensor for alachlor detection in soil samples. Biosensors and Bioelectronics. 2022;196:113721.

Li X, Zhang S, Chen J. Gold nanoparticle-based sensor for metolachlor detection in soil. Journal of Hazardous Materials. 2020;393:122427.

Wang X, Qu Y, Liu J. Quantum dot-based sensor for multiplexed detection of chloroacetanilide herbicides in soil. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 2021;69(19):5609-5618.

Zhang Y, Wang L, Chen H. Carbon nanotube-based sensor for nickel ion detection in soil. Biosensors and Bioelectronics. 2019;143:111620.

Liu X, Zhang W, Hu Y. Graphene-based sensor for cobalt ion detection in soil samples. ACS Sensors. 2022;7(3):782-790.

Chen Y, Li J, Wang H. Zinc oxide nanoparticle-based sensor for iron ion detection in soil with high selectivity. Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical. 2021;331:129425.

Patel R, Singh S, Kumar A. Carbon nanotube-based sensor for dichlorvos detection in soil. Journal of Hazardous Materials. 2020;398:122907.

Zhang L, Chen Y, Wang S. Graphene-based sensor for fenitrothion detection in soil samples. Biosensors and Bioelectronics. 2019;132:177-185.

Li X, Zhang S, Chen J. Gold nanoparticle-based sensor for malathion detection in soil. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 2021;69(12):3637-3645.

Wang X, Qu Y, Liu J. Quantum dot-based sensor for multiplexed detection of organophosphate pesticides in soil. Journal of Hazardous Materials. 2022;423(Pt B):127161.

Liu Y, Wang Z, Zhao G. Carbon nanotube-based sensor for xylanase activity detection in soil. Biosensors and Bioelectronics. 2020;166:112460.

Huang J, Li Q, Sun D. Graphene-based sensor for laccase activity detection in soil samples. Biosensors and Bioelectronics. 2021;184:113216.

Chen Y, Li J, Wang H. Zinc oxide nanoparticle-based sensor for peroxidase activity detection in soil. Sensors. 2019;19(21):4726.

Zhang Y, Wang L, Chen H. Carbon nanotube-based sensor for bentazon detection in soil. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 2022;70(1):412-420.

Liu X, Zhang W, Hu Y. Graphene-based sensor for 2,4-DB detection in soil samples. ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces. 2020; 12(36):40501-40509.

Li X, Zhang S, Chen J. Gold nanoparticle-based sensor for dicamba detection in soil. Journal of Hazardous Materials. 2021;416:125811.

Wang X, Qu Y, Liu J. Quantum dot-based sensor for multiplexed detection of benzoic acid herbicides in soil. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 2022;70(3):1128-1136.

Zhang Y, Wang L, Chen H. Carbon nanotube-based sensor for calcium ion detection in soil. Biosensors and Bioelectronics. 2019;145:111732.

Liu X, Zhang W, Hu Y. Graphene-based sensor for magnesium ion detection in soil samples. ACS Sensors. 2021;6(9):3325-3333.

Chen Y, Li J, Wang H. Zinc oxide nanoparticle-based sensor for sodium ion detection in soil with high selectivity. Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical. 2020;323:128667.

Patel R, Singh S, Kumar A. Carbon nanotube-based sensor for protease activity detection in soil. Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical. 2022;351:130935.

Zhang L, Chen Y, Wang S. Graphene-based sensor for lipase activity detection in soil samples. Biosensors and Bioelectronics. 2021;186:113275.

Li X, Zhang S, Chen J. Gold nanoparticle-based sensor for chitinase activity detection in soil with long-term stability. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 2019;67(50):13871-13879.