Effect of Cropping System under Tillage and Mulching on Soil Physical Properties and Water Use Efficiency by Maize (Zea mays L.) in Southern Benin

Main Article Content

Alladassi Félix Kouelo
Mahugnon Socrate Agonvinon
Julien Avakoudjo
Tobi Moriaque Akplo
Pascal Houngnandan
Hessou Anastase Azontonde

Abstract

In agriculture, water has become a limiting factor because of the effects of climate change felt by farmers. This situation seriously compromises agricultural production through pockets of drought, delayed and early cessation of rains and then an increase in the length of the dry season.

Aims: This study aims to evaluate the effect of tillage and vegetative mulch on soil physical properties and maize water use efficiency in ferralitic soil of southern Benin.

Study Design: The Factorial Complete Randomized Block Design with 4 repetitions was implemented.

Place and Duration of Study: The experimental site is located at Allada, in southern Benin, and conducted between May 2017 and July 2017.

Methodology: Tillage (No-tillage, flat tillage) and straw mulch rate (0%, 50%, 75% soil cover) and their interaction was been tested during this study. The physical properties of soil and maize water use efficiency were determined.

Results: Tillage significantly reduced soil temperature by 2.65% and improved soil permeability by 60%. Tillage also significantly improved water use efficiency for maize grain from 3.88 to 7.88 kg.mm-1.ha-1 and for maize biomass from 12.67to 23.31 kg.mm-1.ha-1. Mulching significantly improved soil moisture from 11.54% to 13.13%, water use efficiency for maize grain from 4.26 to 7.58kg.mm-1.ha-1 and for maize biomass from 14.50 to 22.05 kg.mm-1.ha-1. Mulching also significantly reduced soil temperature by 11%. The combination of tillage and mulching significantly improved water use efficiency for maize grain and biomass production. The highest water use efficiency (8.87 kg.mm-1.ha-1 for maize grain and 25.17 kg.mm-1.ha-1 for maize biomass) was achieved with tillage combined with mulching at 75% soil cover. The interaction between these two factors significantly reduced soil temperature by 11.30% (tillage combined with mulch at 75% soil cover) compared to control (no-tillage and no-mulch).

Conclusion: This study showed that tillage and mulching at 50% or 75% soil cover improves soil physical properties and water use efficiency for maize production in the context of climate change.

Keywords:
Tillage, mulch, soil cover, soil infiltration rate, plant water used, water use efficiency

Article Details

How to Cite
Kouelo, A. F., Agonvinon, M. S., Avakoudjo, J., Akplo, T. M., Houngnandan, P., & Azontonde, H. A. (2020). Effect of Cropping System under Tillage and Mulching on Soil Physical Properties and Water Use Efficiency by Maize (Zea mays L.) in Southern Benin. Asian Journal of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, 6(4), 8-22. https://doi.org/10.9734/ajsspn/2020/v6i430094
Section
Original Research Article

References

Saïdou A. Converging strategies by farmers and scientists to improve soil fertility and enhance crop production in Benin. PhD Thesis Wageningen University, Wageningen, The Netherlands. 2006;237.

Kintche K. Analyse et modélisation de l'évolution des indicateurs de la fertilité des sols cultivés en zone cotonnière du Togo. Thèse de Doctorat en Sciences de la Terre et de l’Environnement. Université de Bourgogne – France. 2011;215.
Available:https://doi.tel-00728812

Kouelo A. Pratiques de gestion de la fertilité des bas-fonds rizicoles de la commune de Dassa-zoumè. Mémoire de Diplôme d’Etudes Approfondies (DEA). Ecole doctorale de la Faculté des Sciences Agronomiques, Université d’Abomey-calavi. 2011;103.

Rao R, Finck A, Blair G, Tondan H. Plant nutrition for food security. A guide for integrated nutrient management. Fertilizer and plant nutrition Bulletin. 2006;16:366.

GIZ. Bonnes pratiques de conservation des eaux et des sols. In. Contribution à l’adaptation au changement climatique et à la résilience des producteurs au Sahel. K. Ackermann, A. Schöning, M.r. Wegne, and A. Wetzer eds., Bonn et Eschborn, Allemagne. 2012;60.

Akplo TM, Kouelo AF, Ahogle AAM, Houngnandan P, Azontonde HA, Benmansour M, Rabesiranana N, Fulajtar E, Hounkonnou GJJ, Klotoe M-AD. Influence of soil conservation practices on soil moisture and maize crop (Zea mays L.) productivity in Centre Benin. African Journal of Plant Science. 2020;14(1):8-23.
Available:https://doi.org/10.5897/AJPS2019.1927.

Fairhurst T. Manuel de gestion integrée de la fertilité des sols. Consortium Africain pour la Santé des Sols, Nairobi. 2015;169.

Yo T, Adanguidi J, Nikiema A, De Ridder B, Akponikpè P. Pratiques et technologies pour une Agriculture Intelligente face au Climat (AIC) au Bénin. Organisation des Nations Unies pour l’Alimentation et l’Agriculture (FAO), Représentation FAO Bénin. 2017;3.

Boko M, Kosmowski F, Vissin EW. Les enjeux du changement climatique au Bénin. Programme pour le dialogue politique en Afrique de l’Ouest, Maria Zandt (Konrad- Adenauer- Stiftung) , Cotonou, Bénin; 2012.

Igue MA, Oga AC, Balogoun I, Saidou A, Ezui G, Youl S, Kpagbin G, Mando A, Sogbedji JM. Détermination des formules d’engrais minéraux et organiques sur deux types de sols pour une meilleure productivité de maïs (Zea mays l.) dans la commune de Banikoara (Nord-Est Du Bénin). European Scientific Journal. 2016; 12:16.
Available:https://doi.org/10.19044/esj.2016.v12n30p362.

Hammani A, El Masri A, Bouaziz A, Kuper M. Valorisation de l'eau souterraine par les cultures fourragères dans le périmètre irrigué du Tadla, Maroc. In. Economies d’eau en systèmes irrigués au Maghreb. T. Hartani, A. Douaoui, and M. Kuper eds., Cirad, Mostaganem, Algérie. 2009;10.

FAO. L'état de l'insécurité alimentaire dans le monde: Combattre l’insécurité alimentaire lors des crises prolongées. FAO Rome, Italy; 2011.

Kribaa M, Hallaire V, Curmi P, Lahmar R. Effect of various cultivation methods on the structure and hydraulic properties of a soil in a semi-arid climate. Soil and Tillage Research. 2001;60(1-2):43-53.
Available:https://doi.org/10.1016/s0167-1987(01)00171-4

Hernanz J, López R, Navarrete L, Sanchez-Giron V. Long-term effects of tillage systems and rotations on soil structural stability and organic carbon stratification in semiarid central Spain. Soil and Tillage Research. 2002;66(2):129-141.

Pagliai M, Vignozzi N, Pellegrini S. Soil structure and the effect of management practices. Soil and Tillage Research. 2004;79(2):131-143.
Available:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.still.2004.07.002

Lahmar R, Ruellan A. Dégradation des sols et stratégies coopératives en Méditerranée: la pression sur les ressources naturelles et les stratégies de développement durable. Cahiers Agricultures. 2007;16(4):318-323.
Available:https://doi.org/10.1684/agr.2007.0119

Kouelo A. Effets des pratiques culturales sur la dégradation du sol au niveau des trois bassins versants du sud Bénin. Thèse de Doctorat en Sciences Agronomiques, Universités d’Abomey-Calavi, Bénin. 2016; 230.

Azontondé H. Propriétés physiques et hydrauliques des sols au Bénin. Soil Water Balance in the sudano-sahelian Zone. 1991;199:249-258.

Azontonde H. Dégradation et Restauration des terres de Barre au sud Bénin. Centre National d’AgroPédologie (CENAP), Cotonou-Bénin. Bull. Réseau Erosion. 1994;14:38-60.

Igue A, Houndagba C, Chabi A, Assigbe P. Impact de l’aménagement du bas-fond de Gankpétin sur la fertilité des sols et la production du riz et du gombo au centre du Bénin. Bulletin de la Recherche Agronomique du Bénin, Numéro Spécial. 2011;1:1-11.

Akplo TM, Kouelo AF, Houngnandan P, Benmansour M, Rabesiranana N, Mabit L, Ahoglè Agassin MA, Alohoutade FM. Effect of tillage and mulching on soil water erosion in linsinlin watershed, centre of benin. Journal of Experimental Biology and Agricultural Sciences. 2017;5(4):515-524.
Available:https://doi.org/10.18006/2017.5(4).515.524

Houngnandan P, Kouelo AF, Akplo TM, Hountongninou A. Effect of tillage, mulching and n fertiliser on soil water content and maize nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) Indices in Degraded Ferralsol “Terre de Barre” of Southern Benin. IAEA TECDOC SERIES. 2018;30.

Erenstein O, Cadena Iñiguez P. The adoption of conservation tillage in a hillside maize production system in Motozintla, Chiapas. Mexico, D. F.: CIMMYT. 1997; 188-197.

Pomalegni BSC, Ahoyo Adjovi NR, Kpade CP, Gbemavo DSJC, Allagbe CM, Adjanohoun A, Mensah GA. Capitalisation des études et autres travaux sur les chaînes de valeur du maïs au Bénin. Document Technique et d’Informations (DT&I). CNSMaïs, INRAB, ProCAD, MAEP, PPAAO/WAAPP, Bénin. Dépôt légal N° 11236 du 29 avril 2019, 2ème Trimestre, Bibliothèque Nationale (BN) du Bénin. ISBN: 978-99919-75-87-0. 2019; 419.

Saidou A, Kossou D, Acakpo C, Richards P, Kuyper TW. Effects of farmers’ practices of fertilizer application and land use types on subsequent maize yield and nutrient uptake in Central Benin. International Journal of Biological and Chemical Sciences. 2012;6(1):365-378. French.
Available:https://doi.org/10.4314/ijbcs.v6i1.32

Richard G, Sillon J, Cousin I, Bruand A. Travail du sol, structure et fonctionnement hydrique du sol en régime d'évaporation. Etude et Gestion des Sols. 2004;11(1):59-68.

Chen C, Payne WA, Smiley RW, Stoltz MA. Yield and water‐use efficiency of eight wheat cultivars planted on seven dates in northeastern Oregon. Agronomy Journal. 2003;95(4):836-843.

Fellahi Z, Hannachi A, Chennafi H, Makhlouf M, Bouzerzour H. Effets des résidus et du travail du sol sur la production de la biomasse et le rendement du blé dur (Triticum durum Desf., variété MBB) en lien avec l’utilisation de l’eau dans les conditions semi-arides des Hautes Plaines Sétifiennes. Revue Agriculture. 2014;6:03–11.

Sadras VO, Angus JF. Benchmarking water-use efficiency of rainfed wheat in dry environments. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research. 2006;57(8):847-856.

Bluemling B, Yang H, Pahl-Wostl C. Making water productivity operational—A concept of agricultural water productivity exemplified at a wheat–maize cropping pattern in the North China plain. Agricultural Water Management. 2007; 91(1-3):11-23.
Available:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agwat.2007.03.001

Kröbel R, Campbell C, Zentner R, Lemke R, Steppuhn H, Desjardins R, De Jong R. Nitrogen and phosphorus effects on water use efficiency of spring wheat grown in a semi-arid region of the Canadian prairies. Canadian Journal of Soil Science. 2012; 92(4):573-587.
Available:https://doi.org/10.4141/cjss2011-055

Teame G, Tsegay A, Abrha B. Effect of organic mulching on soil moisture, yield, and yield contributing components of sesame (Sesamum indicum L.). International Journal of Agronomy. 2017;6.
Available:https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/4767509.

Léonard J, Rajot J-L. Effets induits du paillage post-cultural d'un sol sableux encroûté au Sahel. Conséquences sur l'amélioration de son fonctionnement hydrique. Agriculture et développement. 1998;18:39-45.

Anschütz J, Kome A, Nederlof M, de Neef R. Collecter l'eau et conserver l'humidité du sol. Agrodok. Wageningen: Fondation Agromisa; 2004.

Erenstein O. Smallholder conservation farming in the tropics and sub-tropics: a guide to the development and dissemination of mulching with crop residues and cover crops. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment. 2003;100(1): 17-37.
Available:https://doi.org/10.1016/s0167-8809(03)00150-6

Yang X-G, Liu H-L, Yu L. The changing of water transfer potential in soil-plant-atmosphere continuum system of maize yield. Chin. J. Eco-Agr. 2003;11:27-29.

Ji S, Unger PW. Soil water accumulation under different precipitation, potential evaporation, and straw mulch conditions. Soil Science Society of America Journal. 2001;65(2):442-448.
Available:https://doi.org/10.2136/sssaj2001.652442x

Kumar D, Singh R, Gadekar H, Patnaik U. Effect of different mulches on moisture conservation and productivity of rainfed turmeric. Indian Journal of Soil Conservation. 2003;31(1):41–44.

Giordani C, Cecchi S, Zanchi C. Effectiveness of different amounts of organic mulch on the conservation of soil moisture. Journal of Agriculture and Environment for International Development. 2002;96(1/2):3-11.

Kar G, Singh R. Soil water retention—transmission studies and enhancing water use efficiency of winter crops through soil surface modification. Indian Journal of Soil Conservation. 2004;8:18-23.

Rahman MA, Chikushi J, Saifizzaman M, Lauren JG. Rice straw mulching and nitrogen response of no-till wheat following rice in Bangladesh. Field Crops Research. 2005;91(1):71-81.
Available:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fcr.2004.06.010

Karuma A, Mtakwa P, Amuri N, Gachene CK, Gicheru P. Tillage effects on selected soil physical properties in a maize-bean intercropping system in Mwala District, Kenya. International Scholarly Research Notices. 2014;12.
Available:https://doi.http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/497205

Iqbal M, Anwar-ul-Hassan, Ibrahim M. Effects of tillage systems and mulch on soil physical quality parameters and maize (Zea mays L.) yield in semi-arid Pakistan. Biological Agriculture & Horticulture. 2008; 25(4):311-325.
Available:https://doi.10.1080/01448765.2008.9755058

Husnjak S, Filipovic D, Kosutic S. Influence of different tillage systems on soil physical properties and crop yield. Rostlinna Vyroba-UZPI (Czech Republic). 2002;48: 249-254.

Khurshid K, Iqbal M, Arif MS, Nawaz A. Effect of tillage and mulch on soil physical properties and growth of maize. International Journal of Agriculture and Biology. 2006;8(5):593-596.

Gordon W, Rickerl D, Sorensen D, Wieland P. Tillage and nitrogen effects on growth, nitrogen content, and yield of corn. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis. 1993;24(5-6):421-441.

Buchan GD. Soil temperature regime. In. Soil and environmental analysis physical methods. K.A. Smith and E.D. Mullins eds. CRC Press, Marcel Dekker, New York, USA. 2000;543-598.

Onwuka B, Mang B. Effects of soil temperature on some soil properties and plant growth. Adv. Plants Agric. Res. 2018; 8:34-37.
Available:https://doi.org/10.15406/apar.2018.08.00288

Matthias AD, Musil S. Temperatures and thermal diffusivity within a rangeland soil near oracle, arizona. Journal of the Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science. 2012;44(1):15-21.
Available:https://doi.org/10.2181/036.044.0103

Wall D, Stobbe E. The effect of tillage on soil temperature and corn (Zea mays L.) growth in Manitoba. Canadian Journal of Plant Science. 1984;64(1):59-67.
Available:https://doi.org/10.4141/cjps84-009

Shen Y, McLaughlin N, Zhang X, Xu M, Liang A. Effect of tillage and crop residue on soil temperature following planting for a Black soil in Northeast China. Scientific Reports. 2018;8(1):1-9.
Available:https://doi.10.1038/s41598-018-22822-8

Islam MS, Karim AJMS, Hossain MS, Masud MM. Tillage and mulch effects on some soil physical properties in shallow red brown terrace soils of Bangladesh. Bulletin of the Institute of Tropical Agriculture, Kyushu University. 2006;29(1): 69-82.

Unkovich M, Baldock J, Farquharson R. Field measurements of bare soil evaporation and crop transpiration, and transpiration efficiency, for rainfed grain crops in Australia–A review. Agricultural Water Management. 2018;205:72-80.
Available:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agwat.2018.04.016

Peng Z, Wang L, Xie J, Li L, Coulter JA, Zhang R, Luo Z, Kholova J, Choudhary S. Conservation Tillage Increases Water Use Efficiency of Spring Wheat by Optimizing Water Transfer in a Semi-Arid Environment. Agronomy. 2019;9(10):583.
Available:https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy9100583

Richards R, Rebetzke G, Condon A, Van Herwaarden A. Breeding opportunities for increasing the efficiency of water use and crop yield in temperate cereals. Crop Science. 2002;42(1):111-121.

Chennafi H, Aïdaoui A, Bouzerzour H, Saci A. Yield response of durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.) cultivar Waha to deficit irrigation under semi arid growth conditions. Asian Journal of Plant Sciences. 2006;5:854-860.

Chennafi H, Hannachi A, Touahria O, Fellahi ZEA, Makhlouf M, Bouzerzour H. tillage and residue management effect on durum wheat [Triticum turgidum (L.) Thell. ssp. turgidum conv. durum (Desf.) MacKey] growth and yield under semi arid climate. Advances in Environmental Biology. 2011:3231-3241.

Choudhary V. Tillage and mulch effects on productivity and water use of pea and soil carbon stocks. Archives of Agronomy and Soil Science. 2015;61(7):1013-1027.
Available:https://doi.10.1080/03650340.2014.977785

Liu D, Zhang X, Li J, Wang X-D. Effects of different tillage patterns on soil properties, maize yield and water use efficiency in Weibei Highland, China. The Journal of Applied Ecology. 2018;29(2):573-582.
Available:https://doi.10.13287/j.1001-9332.201802.023

Sarkar S, Singh S. Interactive effect of tillage depth and mulch on soil temperature, productivity and water use pattern of rainfed barley (Hordium vulgare L.). Soil and Tillage Research. 2007;92(1-2):79-86.
Available:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.still.2006.01.014

Li R, Hou X, Jia Z, Han Q, Yang B. Effects of rainfall harvesting and mulching technologies on soil water, temperature, and maize yield in Loess Plateau region of China. Soil Research. 2012;50(2):105-113.
Available:https://doi.org/10.1071/sr11331

Wang Y, Xie Z, Malhi SS, Vera CL, Zhang Y, Wang J. Effects of rainfall harvesting and mulching technologies on water use efficiency and crop yield in the semi-arid Loess Plateau, China. Agricultural Water Management. 2009;96(3):374-382.

Available:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agwat.2008.09.012