Open Access Original Research Article

Relationship between the Absorption Behavior of Iron and Silicon by Plant and the Macronutrients Affected by Some Sandy Soil Additives

Rama T. Rashad

Asian Journal of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/AJSSPN/2017/35215

Aims: A field experiment was carried out to study the relationship between the plant content of iron (Fe) and/or silicon (Si) and the macronutrients under the sandy soil conditions in presence of soil additives different in their effect on the nutrient’ availability.

Place and Duration of Study: A field experiment for two successive seasons (Sesame in summer season 2015 and wheat in winter season 2016) in sandy soil of the Ismailia Agricultural Research Station - Egypt.  

Methodology: Separate single rates of 1190.48 kg/ha for rice straw, cellulose, silica were mixed with the soil surface before cultivation and then covered with a thin layer of soil. Sesame seeds and/or wheat grains were hand sown and planted as recommended. At harvest, the seeds and grains were analyzed for N, P, K, Si and Fe, as well as the soil available N, P, K after harvesting each crop.

Study Design: Single levels of rice straw, cellulose, silica, and K-humate were applied in a completely randomized design. 

Results: Treatments decreased the Fe content in seeds in the order Control > silica > rice straw > K-humate > cellulose. The content of Fe in grains was enhanced by treatments compared to the control in the direction: K-humate > silica > rice straw > cellulose > control.

Si content in sesame seeds was inhibited affected by the treatments compared to the control in the order: Control > rice straw > K-humate > silica > cellulose.

Conclusion: Positive correlation coefficient (r) exists between Fe and/or Si content and the total NPK in the sesame seeds but an irregular trend was observed for wheat grains. Also, positive correlation exists between Fe and Si percents in both sesame and wheat during the successive seasons with higher for wheat than sesame.

The correlation with the available NPK was positive (r) for the seeds’ Fe content but negative for the Si content while an irregular trend was observed for wheat grains.

Open Access Original Research Article

Tomato Fruits Yield and Soil Properties as Affected by Salts Application and Irrigation Schedule at Jega, Sudan Savanna Agro-ecological Zone

R. Sanda, Ahmad, Ahmad Idris, A. A. Musa, Sadiq Umar, Adamu Muhammad

Asian Journal of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/AJSSPN/2017/35267

Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum, Mill.) is the most popular vegetable with great nutritive value and good source of Potassium and Vitamin A & C. No horticultural crop has received more attention and detailed study than tomato. Water deficit decreases tomato growth, yield and quality therefore, proper water management is vital for sustainable crop production. Therefore, this work is aimed at investigating the effect of salts addition especially sodium chloride and potassium chloride and irrigation schedules on some soil properties and performance of tomato in the Sudan Savanna agro-ecological region of Northern Nigeria, under which Jega falls. The experiment consists of six treatments of salt and irrigation interval and applied at two levels and control i.e. no salt (NaCl 5 g 10 g and 0 g) also at two levels (4 and 7 days) combined in factorial arrangement. The treatments were coded as SoI4, SoI7, SA1I4, SA2I4, SA1I7 and SA2I7, designated as control (without salt with four and seven days irrigation interval), 5 g NaCl with 4 days irrigation interval, 10 g NaCl with 4 days irrigation interval, 5 g NaCl with 7 days irrigation interval and 10 g NaCl with 7 days irrigation interval respectively. The treatments were laid down in a Randomized Completely Block Design (RCBD) and replicated three times. The results of this study shows that both salt and irrigation scheduling does not significantly affected the soil pH, whereas soil Organic Carbon was significantly affected by the salt application in which it was observed that the lower the salt concentration, the higher the percentage OC, while the longer the irrigation interval, the higher the percentage OC. No significant effect was also observed in the percentage TN (Total Nitrogen) by salt application as well as irrigation scheduling. Exchangeable bases were also affected by salt application as well as irrigation schedule.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Sapropel Addition on Selected Soil Properties and Field Tomato Yield in South West Siberia

Natalia Naumova, Taisiya Nechaeva, Natalya Smirnova, Yury Fotev, Valentina Belousova

Asian Journal of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/AJSSPN/2017/35760

Aims: Recently freshwater lake sapropels have attracted increasing attention due to their use in agriculture and environmental engineering. To study the effect of unprocessed sapropel on soil properties and tomato (Licopersicon esculentum Mill.) yield   we conducted a microplot open field experiment in the south of West Siberia (Russia, Asian part).

Study Design: Experimental sites were located NL 54.96-55.01, EL 82.38-83.30 on agricultural loamy soils. Sapropel was added at the rate of 450 kg Corg ha-1 and 40.5 kg N ha-1 once at the start of the experiment after transplanting tomato seedlings into the open field. Both control (no sapropel) and sapropel-amended soil received mineral fertilizers at the rate of 30 kg N, 60 kg P and 75 kg K per hectare. Experiment was performed in factorial design, and the order of experimental units in each sites was randomized.

Place and Duration of Study: Laboratory of Agrochemistry, Institute of Soil Science and Agrochemistry, Novosibirsk, Russia, between June and September 2013.

Methodology: Major soil chemical and microbiological properties were determined at the end of the experiment. Mature tomato fruits were collected during the growing period, and their nutritional qualities determined. The data were analyzed by ANOVA and PCA.

Results: Sapropel was not found to influence tomato fruit yield that overall averaged 2.2 kg/plant, or 88,000 kg ha-1, but was shown to increase lycopene content in fruits by 80% (from 19 up to 34 mg/kg), thus improving fruit quality. Sapropel had no effect on soil chemical properties, but increased soil microbial biomass nitrogen and its contribution into soil organic matter. Thus soil microbiological properties, pertaining to organic matter mineralization and nitrogen immobilization, were shown to be more responsive to sapropel addition than soil chemical properties.

Conclusion: To justify use of freshwater lake sapropel as a fertilizer agronomically, economically and ecologically one should take into consideration many factors, ranging from soil to interсultivar properties variation and temporal aspects such as after-effect.

Open Access Original Research Article

Impact of Irrigation and Mulching on Tomato Yield and Soil Nutrient Status on Soils Treated with KCl and NaCl

A. R. Sanda, Musa Ahmed Augie, Yato Daniel, Ahmad Idris, Adam Muhammad

Asian Journal of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/AJSSPN/2017/35268

An experiment was conducted at the Teaching and Research Farm of Kebbi State University of Science and Technology at Jega to evaluate tomato fruit yield and nutrient availability as influenced by mulching and irrigation schedule on salt treated soil. The experiment consists of fractional combinations of two irrigation intervals (four (I4) days irrigation and seven (I7) days irrigation intervals), and two mulching levels (with mulch and without mulch). The treatments were coded as MI4, MI7, UMI4, and UMI7: assigned as Mulch with 4 days irrigation interval, Mulch with 7 days interval, without mulch with four days irrigation interval, without mulch with seven days irrigation interval, respectively. The treatments were laid down in a randomized complete block design (RCBD), and replicated three times. Total tomato fruit yield as measured at the end of the experiment shows that I4 (4 days irrigation interval) has the highest total yield of 31.65 t ha-1 as against 21.9 t ha-1 recorded for I7 (7 days irrigation interval). Mulch application also yielded higher total fruit yield of 29.9 t ha-1 which is higher than no mulch plot which is 23.63 tha-1. However, marketable fruits also keep the same trend that is I4 is superior over I7 with the values of 55.77% and 50.79% respectively, Mulch treatment also yielded the highest percentage marketable fruit yield of 56.15% higher than no mulch plot with 50.41%. After harvest the soil properties indicated that pH was not significantly affected by irrigation intervals at both level, but Mulch treatment have 5.13 and no Mulch have 5.03. Organic Carbon percentage indicates that I4 is lower than I7 with the value of 0.43% and 0.49% respectively, also mulch treatments has higher percentage O.C. I7 is higher than I4 in terms of Total N content with the value of 0.062% and 0.055% respectively, the trend for Mulch is similar as Mulch plots is higher than no Mulch plots in Total N content. Available P content indicated that I7 has 5.28 mg kg-1, while I4 has 2.60 mg kg-1 and Mulch plots is also superior to no Mulch plots in terms available P. Cation Exchange Capacity (CEC) was also affected by irrigation interval as I7 has 6.9 cmol (+) kg, which is higher than I4 which has the value of 5.82 cmol (+) kg, but Mulch and no Mulch plots indicates similar values of CEC.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Macro-nutrients and Farm Yard Manure on Productivity and Profitability of Mustard (Brassica juncea L.) in Western Uttar Pradesh, India

Vishal Kumar, Virendra Singh, Satybhan Singh, N. K. Tiwari

Asian Journal of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/AJSSPN/2017/35637

A field experiment was conducted during winter season of 2015-16 at agricultural farm of IFTM University, Lodhipur Rajput, Moradabad (UP), India, to evaluate the effect of NPK, Sulphur and FYM on growth and yield of mustard (Brassica juncea L.) in western Uttar Pradesh. The experiment consisted ten treatment combination was laid out in randomized block design with three replications. The result revealed that the highest growth and yield attributing characters recorded with the application of 75% NPK in combination with 40 kg S and 10 MT FYM ha-1. Highest plant height (174.63 cm), number of branches plant-1 (24.47), dry weight (21.47 g), number of siliquae plant-1 (381.40), 1000-seed weight (5.52 g), seed yield (1541.5 kg ha-1) and stover yield (5161.0 kg ha-1) was recorded the application of 75% NPK in combination with 40 kg S and 10 MT FYM ha-1. Net return (Rs. 33119.4) and B: C ratio (1.04) was significantly differ from control. Oil and protein content was significantly influenced with the application of Sulphur and FYM. Significantly higher oil content was recorded at 75% NPK along with 40 kg S and 10 MT FYM ha-1. Protein content was significantly higher in 75% NPK along with 40 kg S and 10 MT FYM ha-1.