Open Access Review Article

Constrains, Production Systems and Roles of Phosphorus in Rice Production in Tanzania

Prosper I. Massawe

Asian Journal of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/AJSSPN/2017/36165

Rice is the second most cultivated food and commercial crop in Tanzania after maize, with a cultivated area of about 365000 ha, which represents 18 percent of the cultivated land. Rice is used almost solely for human consumption, and is second only to maize in terms of calorie supply, it is accounting for around 8 percent of the nation’s calorie intake. In 2010, Tanzania became a net exporter of rice, producing over 2.6 million tons and was ranked to the second highest levels in Africa, directly behind Madagascar. Soil fertility is essential for a rice plant to grow and for physiological development. Phosphorus is one of 17 essential nutrients, its functions cannot be performed by any other nutrient, and an adequate supply of P is required for optimum rice growth and reproduction. Phosphorus is frequently deficient for crop production and is required by rice crop in relatively large amounts. Phosphorus deficiency affects the major functions in energy storage and transfer of rice plants which include tillering, root development, early flowering, and ripening. Soluble phosphorus from fertilizer or natural weathering, reacts with clay, iron and aluminum compounds in the soil, and is converted readily to less available forms by the process of phosphorus fixation. This fixed, residual phosphorus remains in the rooting zone and will be slowly available to crops. Adequate supplies of other plant nutrients and plant promoting regulators (hormones) tend to increase the absorption of phosphorus from the soil. However, the number of crop problems can be related to nutrient imbalance in the field such as soil moisture, temperature, pests and diseases. Therefore, this review paper aimed to explore the rice yield levels, production constrains and systems, role of phosphorus and strategies to enhance phosphorus use efficiency in rice farms in Tanzania.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Soil Properties around Industries of Jharkhand

Amrit Kumar Jha, Kaushik Chatterjee, A. K. Sarkar

Asian Journal of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/AJSSPN/2017/36674

Accumulation of trace metals and their bio-availability in soils is likely to have for reacting consequences on soil health as well as growth, yield and quality of crops. To assess the soil properties samples were collected from farmers fields around industries of Patratu, Bokaro and Jamshedpur. Analysis of soil pH, electrical conductivity and organic carbon content revealed that soils collected from Patratu were moderately acidic in soil reaction. Soil reaction in case of Bokaro and Jamshedpur ranged from acidic to neutral or alkaline. The electrical conductivity was within the safe limit, while the organic carbon content was medium to high. The soils were low in available N and P, while low to medium in available K status. Available micronutrients were above the critical value. DTPA-Cd was detected in 50 per cent soil samples of Patratu, 45 per cent of Bokaro and 80 per cent of Jamshedpur. All soil samples from Patratu and nearly 50 per cent samples of Bokaro and Jamshedpur contained high DTPA extractable Pb, Ni and Co.

Open Access Original Research Article

Fruit Quality and Osmotic Adjustment of Four Tomato Cultivars under Drought Stress

Kamrun Nahar, S. M. Ullah

Asian Journal of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/AJSSPN/2017/36861

A field experiment was conducted on loam soil to study the effect of drought stress on fruit quality and osmotic adjustment in four tomato cultivars in Bangladesh. The water stress treatments were imposed at 82-100% (T0), 69-85% (T1), 53-67% (T2), and 40-50% (T3) of the field capacity. Under stress, the quality of fruits was improved as a result of the synthesis of different acids like ascorbic acid, citric acid and malic acid. The response of solute accumulation in relation to water stress revealed significant increase in glucose, fructose and sucrose in fruits and proline contents in leaves, showed the conspicuous tendency of tomato plants to adjust osmotically against water stress.

An increase of 100% (glucose), 30% (fructose) 72% (sucrose) and 345% (proline) were found at T3 treatment compared with T0. The concentration of citric acid, malic acid and ascorbic acid increased with increasing water deficit in the plants. Water stress increased sugar and different acids and consequently improved the fruit quality. No physical damage due to stress was observed in fruits, which were over 90% red.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Impact of Long-term Cassava Mill Effluent Discharge on Soil pH and Microbial Characteristics in Cross River State

J. F. Akpan, M. O. Eyong, I. A. Isong

Asian Journal of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/AJSSPN/2017/36917

Increasing level of cassava effluent discharge on agricultural soils has become a source of concern for environmentalists including soil scientists. Therefore, this study assessed the impact of such activities on soil pH and microbial characteristics. The result obtained showed that the soil samples collected after 25 m away from the point of effluent discharge were slightly acid to slightly alkaline in pH, while those at the point of effluent discharge up to 10 to 25 m away from the point of effluent discharge were acidic. This showed that cassava mill effluent discharge increased soil acidity which could suppress bacterial growth in the soil within the point of discharge. The control soil had the highest microbial count than the impacted soils. The microbial species isolated included bacteria such as Lactococcus lactis, Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Micrococcus variance and Staphylococcus aureus while the fungal isolates include Aspergillus niger, Fusarium spp, Penicillium spp, Mucor spp and Rhizopus spp. The result further showed that in impacted soil Bacillus subtilis (27.78%), and Rhizopus spp (28%) had the highest frequency of occurrence for bacteria and fungi respectively while in the control soils Lactococcus lactis (26.67%), and Rhizopus spp (27.27%) and Penicillium spp (27.27%) were the most dominant bacteria and fungus isolated across the different sampling distances. Hence, there should be an increasing awareness of the emergency created by cassava processing mills and management practices should be adopted to remediate the impacted soil.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Effect of Different Pear Rootstocks on the Performance of Pear Cultivars Grown in Semi-Arid Climate and High Calcareous Soil Conditions

Ali Ikinci

Asian Journal of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/AJSSPN/2017/37769

Rootstocks in fruit growing affect the performances of the cultivated varieties which have been overgrown, such as tree growth, yield, earliness, fruit quality, flowering, fruit setting, the content of nutrients in leaves and fruits. In this study, in summer very high temperatures seen in the GAP Region (Sanliurfa-Turkey), and high lime soil conditions with a ratio in wild quince seedling, clonal Quince A (Cydonia oblonga Mill.) and BA 29 (Cydonia oblonga Mill.) some pear cultivars budded on rootstocks performance was studied. In the study, some pomological and phenological characteristics of 6 pear cultivars (Abbe Fetel, Akça, Bella di Giugno, Coscia, Deveci, and Dr. Jules Guyot) planted in 2004 in Sanliurfa conditions were determined. Bud swell and bud bursting occurred on different rootstocks in March, and flowering occurred in April. Among the pear cultivars, the earliest flowering cultivar of pear was Akça (27 March), while the earliest fruit ripens variety was Bela di Giugno (01 July). Among the varieties, The latest fruit ripening was determined in the Deveci cultivar. Among the pear varieties studied, the heaviest (451.16 g), the widest (92.28 mm) and the largest volume (428.39 cm3) of fruits were Deveci on the clonal Quince A rootstock, while the longest fruit was Abbe Fetel (114.64 mm) and the highest fruit flesh firmness was determined Deveci cultivar (19.22 kg/cm2) budded on seedling rootstock. The total soluble solid matter content in the cultivars varied from 13.50-15.95% and the titratable acid content varied from 0.33-0.56%.