Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Dried Algae and N Fertilizers to Soil Chemical Properties and the Yield of Amaranthus (Amaranthus cruentus) on Ultisols Southeastern Nigeria

E. O. Azu, Donatus, V. E. Osodeke, O. U. Nwanja

Asian Journal of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/AJSSPN/2017/37538

Organic manure plays an important role in improving the fertility of Ultisols. A pot experiment to investigate the effect of dried algae and N fertilizer on the chemical properties and the yield of Amaranthus on Ultisol was conducted from March to June, 2017 in the Green House of Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike, Abia State of Nigeria, located at latitude 5°29’N and longitude 7°35E and on elevation of about 122 m above sea level with mean annual rainfall of about 2163 mm, mean daily temperature range of 35°C to 20°C and a relative humidity of about 72%. The experiment was arranged as Complete Randomized Design (CRD) with factorial pattern, consisted of two factors and provided with three replications. The first factor was the application of dried algae (0, 1, 2, 3 and 4 t/ha) and the second factor was the application of N fertilizer (0, 40, 80 and 120 kg/ha). The observed responds were chemical soils properties (pH, organic carbon, available phosphorus, total nitrogen, exchangeable bases, exchangeable acidity and effective cation exchange capacity) and the growth and the crop yield (plant height, numbers of leaves, stem girth and fresh yield). The experimental results revealed that the addition of dried algae as organic ameliorant and N-fertilizer improved most of the soil fertility properties as lone and combined treatments except in available P, total N were interaction effect were not significant.  Application of 1-4 ton of algae without N fertilizers has increased the fresh yield about 73.85 to 91.65%, while the application of N fertilizers without dried algae application increased only about 25.20 to 29 87% of the fresh crop yield. The application 4 ton ha-1 dried algae without N-urea had the highest fresh yield of 89.87 g plant-1, while the highest fresh yield of about 30.13 g plant-1 without application of dried algae was obtained by the application of 120 kg ha-1 N-urea. Generally, the highest fresh yield of 97.13 g plant-1 was obtained by application of 4 ton ha-1 dried algae and 80 kg ha-1 N-urea. Consequently, the application of 4 ton ha-1 dried algae and 80 kg ha-1 N-urea has a great prospect to improve the properties of Ultisols, to enhance the fertilizers efficiency and to increase the yield of Amaranthus.

Open Access Original Research Article

Physical-chemical Characterization and Microbial Activity of Alternative Substrates for Arugula Cultivation (Eruca sativa Mill.)

G. M. B. Bohm, S. M. Schwanz, S. L. Lanius, E. B. de Moraes, T. Morsele

Asian Journal of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/AJSSPN/2017/38822

Aims: The objective of this work was to evaluate the physical, chemical and biological characteristics of the substrates formulated from carbonized rice husk, industrial sludge, vermiculite, soil and commercial substrate, as well as the development of arugula seedlings cultured in the compositions.

Study Design: Eight treatments were studied in a completely randomized design: TO = commercial substrate (SC); T1= commercial substrate + soil (1SC:1S); T2= commercial substrate + soil + carbonized rice husk (1SC:1S:1CAC); T3= commercial substrate + vermiculite (1SC:1V); T4= commercial substrate + vermiculite + carbonized rice husk (1SC:1V:1CAC); T5= sludge + vermiculite (1L:1V); T6= sludge + vermiculite + carbonized rice husk (1L:1V:1CAC); T7= commercial substrate + sludge + vermiculite + carbonized rice husk (1SC:1L:1V:1CAC), being carried in box of expanded polystyrene (PEE) with four replicates.

Place and Duration of Study: The experiment was conducted in an experimental area of Campus Pelotas, Federal Institute of Sul-rio-grandense, Pelotas, Brazil, period from October until December 2015.

Methodology: The chemical characteristics evaluated were: pH in water, organic carbon, total nitrogen, total phosphorus, total potassium and C/N ratio. The physical characteristics as total porosity, macroporosity, microporosity, water retention capacity and density. Also, organic matter, electrical conductivity and basal respiration were evaluated.

Conclusion: The SC:V and SC:V:CAC treatments present pH, C Org., N, OM and C/N characteristics close to the commercial substrate, but present P, K and EC levels below the ranges indicated in the literature as suitable for the formation of substrates. Regarding the physical characteristics, the formulation closest to the ideal was also SC:V, which results in good microporosity, total porosity, water retention capability, but low macroporosity and density.

Open Access Original Research Article

Variation in Soil Physical and Chemical Properties as Affected by Three Slope Positions and Their Management Implications in Ganye, North-Eastern Nigeria

S. A. Gisilanbe, H. J. Philip, R. I. Solomon, E. E. Okorie

Asian Journal of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/AJSSPN/2017/39047

Understanding topography or slopes, identifying physical and chemical properties of soils improves greatly informed management decisions for agricultural productivity. The study on variation of some physical and chemical properties of soils as affected by slope positions was aimed at providing critical fertility status of the soils. Farmers have complained of reduced output from their farm lands due to leaching activities and erosion hazards. Slope positions were delineated using the Geographic Information System (GIS) and 3 different slope positions were identified (SP1, SP2 and SP3), and each slope position was recognized as a unit. Three (3) profile pits were dug in each unit located at Kugon (SP3), Timdore (SP2) and Sammeri (SP1) respectively. Soil samples were collected in each identified soil horizon of the pits and soil samples were collected for laboratory analysis of some physical and chemical soil properties and One-way analysis of variance was carried out using GraphPad Prism (2007) software, version 5.0 at p<0.05. Soils were slightly acidic to neutral and predominantly sandy in nature (81.00%). The study revealed that slope position influenced water holding capacity and water retention in and were significantly different. Soil chemical properties were not significantly affected by slope positions. The soils were low in nitrogen (0-0.15%), organic carbon (<1%), while AV-P were generally rated medium (10-20), high Ca2+ (>5) at the Bt horizon, Mg2+ (>1) and %BS were rated medium to high (50-80, >80) regardless of slope position and are considered fertile with high potential to support agriculture. Good and improved management practices like use of organic material and integrated nutrient management (INM) practice will improve the soil texture and structure; reduce leaching activities and erosion hazards in the area.

Open Access Original Research Article

Morphology, Physicochemical Characterisation and Erodibility of Soils of Boboyo (Far - North Cameroon)

Souoré Irène, Nguetnkam Jean Pierre, Yongue Fouateu Rose

Asian Journal of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/AJSSPN/2017/38102

The present work contributes to the study of soils in the Northern part of Cameroon, precisely in Boboyo region soils. This work aims to study morphology and physicochemical characteristics of those soils and to assess their vulnerability to erosion. Methodology: Ten wells were dug according to two directions: one direction W-E and one direction NNE-SSW. The principal analyses carried out in a laboratory are the physicochemical analyses: the granulometric analyse and the proportioning of organic carbon, total nitrogen, the exchangeable bases, the pH and residual moisture. The erodibility indices are calculate starting from the physicochemical data of the soils.

Six types of soils were identified in Boboyo: alluvial soils (entisols, fluvisols) widely spread in the region, covering the seasonally flooded plain, lithosols were found in the upper part of the landscape, colluvial soils (arenosols, regosols) were located in the Piedmont, the vertical alluvial soils were located in lower part of the slope in flooded plain, vertisols and ferruginous indurate soils were founded between colluvial (arenosols, regosols) and alluvial soils (entisols, fluvisols). The physico-chemical analyses reveal that: the colluvial soils (arenosols, regosols) are neutral to weakly acid (7 to 5,4), clayey-sandy to sandy; the vertisols are weakly acid (pH=6,3), sandy-clay (sand =77,9 and clay=19,6); The alluvial soils (entisols, fluvisols) are acid to neutral (pH= 5,2 to 7), sandy (80%); the vertic alluvial soils are neutral (pH=7), clayey-sandy (clay 34,2 and sand 65,3) and ferruginous indurate soils (luvisols) are acid (pH=5,2), sandy. All these soils are saturated (78 to 98), poor in organic matter (0,72 to 2,89%) and nitrogen and characterised by moderate proportions of exchangeable bases. The assessment of the erodibility based on erodibility indices enables to show that alluvial soils (entisols, fluvisols) are most vulnerable to erosion while the colluvial soils (arenosols, regosols) are less susceptible.

Open Access Original Research Article

Influence of Natural Alternative NPK and Bio-fertilizations on Vegetative Growth and Nutritional Status of Young Wonderful Pomegranate Trees

M. H. M. Baiea, M. A. Abdel Gawad-Nehad, A. Abedelkhalek

Asian Journal of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/AJSSPN/2017/39325

Aims: To study the effects of natural alternative NPK and bio fertilizer on vegetative growth and nutritional status of Wonderful pomegranate trees.

Experimental Design: The complete randomized block design (RCBD) with three replications was used for arranging the fertilization treatments and each replicate was represented by two trees.

Place and Duration of Study: This investigation was conducted during two experimental seasons in 2014 and 2015 on young Wonderful pomegranate trees grown in reclaimed sandy soil under drip irrigation (National Research Center orchard) at Nobaria region, Behara Governorate, Egypt.

Methodology: Organic N and some natural PK raw mixtures were used at four doses (500, 1000, 1500 and 2000 g/tree) either solely or combined with bio NPK fertilizers and parameters of growth and nutritional status were evaluated.

Results: Obtained results declared that T1 (control), T2 (organo NPK rocky materials only at 500 g/tree) and T10 (bio NPK fertilizers mixture solely at 300 ml/tree) seemed to be equally declined, followed in ascending order by T3 (1000 g of alter. organo. Rocky mix. Only, T6 (Natural alternative NPK fertilizations mixture (organic N and PK raw mineral rocky materials) at 500 g plus NPK bio-fertilizations mixture at 300 ml. per tree.), T4 (1500 g of alter. organo. Rocky mix. Only, T5 (2000g of alter. organo. Rocky mix. Only), T7 (Natural alternative NPK fertilizations mixture (organic N and PK raw mineral rocky materials) at 1000 g plus NPK bio-fertilizations mixture at 300 ml. per tree.) and T8 (Natural alternative NPK fertilizations mixture (organic N and PK raw mineral rocky materials) at 1500 g plus NPK bio-fertilizations mixture at 300 ml. per tree.) and T9 (Natural alternative NPK fertilizations mixture (organic N and PK raw mineral rocky materials) at 2000 g plus NPK bio-fertilizations mixture at 300 ml. per tree).

Conclusion: Using mixture of organic N and rocky PK materials at either 1500 or 2000 g/tree combined with bio-NPK mixture at 300 ml/tree (T8 and T9) improved vegetative growth measurements (plant height, stem thickness, shoot length, number of both shoots per tree and leaves per shoot, average leaf area and total assimilation area of plant), as well as nutritional status (leaf chlorophyll, N, P, K, Fe, Mn and Zn contents) of young Wonderful pomegranate trees.