Open Access Original Research Article

Prediction of Nitrogen Application in Maize Based on the Normalised Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI)

Lawal, Babatunde Akeem, Raji, Ibrahim Akintunde, O. Egedegbe, Godfrey, A. M. Omogoye

Asian Journal of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/AJSSPN/2018/43886

Aims: To determine the quantity of nitrogen required for vegetative, yield and yield components of maize and to predict these attributes using the normalised difference vegetative index.

Study Design: Experiment was carried out in randomized complete block design five treatments and replicated three replicates.

Place and Duration of Study: Field experiment was carried out at Ladoke Akintola University of Technology at Teaching and Research Farm, Ogbomoso (latitude 8º10' N, longitude 40º10' E and elevation 1,286 m), Nigeria, during the raining season between June and October of 2015.

Methodology: Seeds of nine maize hybrids were obtained from the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture, Ibadan, and submitted to five nitrogen rates (0, 80, 100, 120 and 140 kg          Nha-1). Seeds were sown in two 5 m row plots with 0.75 m space between rows and 0.5 m within rows. Data of NDVI at 2, 3 and 4 weeks after planting (WAP), number of leaves, plant height, cob weight, grain weight, harvest index of cob and grain were collected and subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA).

Results: The ANOVA indicated significant variation (P ≤ 0.05) among nitrogen treatments for all growth and yield parameters. There was a significant correlation between NDVI values and grain yield per hectare indicating that NDVI can be used to predict maize performance. As a result of the magnitude of the correlation coefficient between NDVI at 4 WAP and grain yield (GY), regression analysis was computed between these two parameters; for every possible change in the value of NDVI 4 WAP, the corresponding equation: GY = 2592.5 + 9653.5 x (NDVI 4WAP).

Conclusion: The study concluded that application of 140 kg Nha-1 nitrogen fertiliser improves yield and yield components of maize. Moreover, judicious application of remote sensing (based on the NDVI) can be used to predict maize performance, thereby enhancing nutrient and other resource management in maize and ensuring high grain yield production.

Open Access Original Research Article

Impact of Nitrogen Forms and Levels on Yield and Quality of Rice in Kirinyaga and Kisumu Counties Kenya

Ntinyari Winnie, Joseph P. Gweyi-Onyango

Asian Journal of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/AJSSPN/2018/44658

Nitrogen is one of the most limiting elements in crop production. The lack of nitrogen is even more pronounced in Sub-Saharan African as farmers are poor and cannot afford the required amount for crop production. Depending on form, nitrogen is known to affect the uptake of other nutrient elements. It is therefore important to understand strategies that can enhance the availability of N as well as other element. The N content is also a putative precursor for protein, an important component of rice quality.

An experiment was therefore carried out to evaluate the effects of nitrogen forms and levels on yield and quality of rice grain in Ahero Kisumu county and Mwea Kirinyaga county.

The trial took place during the main growing seasons of July to December. The Experiments were laid out in Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) in a factorial arrangement with three replicates giving a total of 36 plots, with each plot measuring 3 m by 4 m.  Two nitrogen forms, including urea and ammonium sulphate were applied in three levels (0, 25 and 50kgha-1 respectively).

The results showed a positive relationship between levels of nitrogen and the measured parameters. There were observed increase in yield, grain crude protein, as well as more zinc and iron accumulations. Ammonium sulphate supplied at 50kgha-1 recorded an increase in grain zinc concentration of 163.8 mgkg-1and 195.5 mgkg-1 in Ahero and Mwea respectively.  A similar trend was observed in both crude protein and iron accumulation in the rice grain.  The unfertilised plots had the lowest accumulation and uptake of the two elements and lower quality of tested aspects. Proper application of nitrogen with the recommended rates has the potential of eliminating the challenges of hidden hunger, hence enhancing food insecurity and reducing malnutrition through increased yield and quality of rice. 

Open Access Original Research Article

Isolation and Characterisation of Particulate Organic Matter in Some Soils of Ganges Meander Floodplain and Ganges Tidal Floodplain of Bangladesh

Rikta Khatun, Md. Zulfikar Khan, Md. Sadiqul Amin

Asian Journal of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/AJSSPN/2018/44908

The research was conducted with six representative soil series of Ganges Meander Floodplain and Ganges Tidal Floodplain of Bangladesh during the period of September, 2016 to March, 2017 to isolate and characterise the active fraction of particulate organic matter and its effect on nitrogen and other soil properties. A total 36 soils samples (0-15 cm) were collected in the field through random sampling from six representative soil series of GMF and GTF under different cropping pattern. The laboratory investigation was carried out in the Department of Soil, Water and Environment Discipline, Khulna University, Khulna, Bangladesh. The results indicate that the pH of the studied soils was neutral to mildly alkaline and all the studied soils were non-saline. The active fraction of soil organic matter as well as particulate organic matter was found highest (11.62 g/kg) in Barisal and lowest (2.90 g/kg) in Sara soil series. The highest amount of total nitrogen was found in the soil of Barisal (10.88 g/kg) series and the lowest was in Ishurdi (7.02 g/kg) soil series. In the present study, a positive relationship was found between total nitrogen content and particulate organic matter. The highest amount of micro-aggregate associated carbon at > 0.50 mm range was found in the soil of Barisal series (11.26 g/kg) and the lowest was in Sara series (2.11 g/kg). The highest amount of micro-aggregate associated carbon in the range of 0.50-0.25 mm was found in Amjhupi series (10.88 g/kg) and the lowest was in Ishurdi series (7.02 g/kg). Total nitrogen content of the soils was positively correlated with POM, SOM, clay, pH but negatively correlated with silt. Moreover, silt and the particulate organic matter is negatively correlated. Soil organic carbon associated with the aggregates of 0.50-0.25 mm size range had a positive correlation with SOM associated with the aggregates of > 0.50 mm size range which is significant at 5% level. The P value between SOC 2 and SOM is significant, while in case of POM it is highly significant at 5% level of significance.

Open Access Original Research Article

Nutrients Load in Ponds Both Water and Soil Due to Application of Different Levels of Carbon and Nitrogen with Feeding

Md. Ariful Islam, Naima Nusrat, Md. Zulfikar Khan, Shaikh Motasim Billah, Md. Sadiqul Amin, Kazi Ahmed Kabir

Asian Journal of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, Page 1-16
DOI: 10.9734/AJSSPN/2018/44848

Application of different types of feeds, fertilisers or food based nutrients in ponds results in the accumulation of high levels nitrogen, phosphorous and organic carbon in water and bottom soil. Farmers can use pond water as an irrigation source while soil as a fertility source of agriculture. This study was conducted at Sahas village on Dumuria upazila at Khulna district in Bangladesh for 46 days (from April to May, 2017) with nursery reared tilapia fingerlings in aforementioned earthen ponds using two different composition of commercial fish feed (diet-1 & diet-2) varying crude protein content 24% and 35% with different C and N content respectably as main plot treatment and three different amount 0 kg, 3 kg, 6 kg of each diets as sub plot treatment with six replications in split plot experimental design. In this study of aquaculture farming from initial about 6-8% organic carbon, 23-35% total nitrogen, 22-45% total phosphorous stored in pond sediments while 10-20% of available potassium and 2-3% of C/N ratio depleted from it. About 16-20% available nitrogen, 7-10% available phosphorous stored in pond water while about 8-9% dissolved organic carbon, 3-18% available potassium and 2-5% C/N ratio were depleted from it. Nutrient enrichment of pond water and soil during aquaculture production is insufficient to meet crop nutrient demand but fertiliser recommendations for crops should be altered when pond water is used as an irrigation source and pond bottom sediments used as fertility soil for in situ cultivation or excavate it to other field for growing crops and cost may reduce.

Open Access Short Research Article

Microbial Isolates for Enhancement of Seed Germination

P. Dhasarathan, S. Nithica, S. Aparna, K. Cholapandian, A. J. A. Ranjithsingh

Asian Journal of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/AJSSPN/2018/44901

Bacteria that colonise plant roots and promote plant growth are referred to as Plant Growth- Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR). Rhizobium bacterial isolated from soil samples (PEC 1 and PEC 2) collected from prathyusa college garden soil. The emergence of seedlings, from the seed at a height of 2 mm was treated as germination. PEC1 and PEC2 inoculated seed germination, coefficient and vigor index value remarkably changed compared to control groups. PEC2 showed better responses compared to PEC 1 and control groups.