Open Access Original Research Article

Influence of Organic Enriched Manure and Inorganic Fertilizers on Plant Physiological Processes of Kenyan Tea Clone

Hassan Kiprotich, Nicholas K. Korir, Nyabundi Karl, Joseph P. Gweyi-Onyango

Asian Journal of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/ajsspn/2019/v5i330064

Tea (Camellia sinensis L.) is one of the most popular beverages consumed in the world and Kenya is the leading exporter in Africa and only 3rd worldwide after China and India. Nutrient deficiency in soils and poor fertilization are possibly two reasons for low yields and quality of tea. The use of organic matter and mineral fertilizers has been proved to be a sound soil amendment and fertility management strategy. Therefore, this study was conducted to evaluate the possibility of using readily available organic manures in combination of inorganic fertilizers on the physiological processes of tea clones in Kenya. The study was conducted within Timbilil estate, KALRO- Tea Research Institute in Kericho County on variety clone TRFK31/8. It was laid out in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) and replicated three times. There were 14 treatments that randomly assigned in each block. Data on tea response was determined from photosynthesis rate, transpiration rate and stomatal conductance then recorded and analyzed using GenStat Version 15.1. There were significant differences between the treatments on the transpiration rate, stomatal conductance and the photosynthetic rate in both seasons for all the months recorded. The transpiration rate was highest during the wet season in the months of June, July and August while lower transpiration rates were recorded during the dry season in the months of December, January and February with 0.1 g m−2 s−1 transpiration rates recorded in several treatments in the month of February. Stomatal conductance, photosynthetic rate and transpiration rate were higher where NH4+ was introduced through the organic manure in all the seasons and therefore confirms that it is highly important to incorporate soil amendments with higher organic matter in tea production in Kenya.

Open Access Original Research Article

Development of Lettuce Plant in Spring and Autumn Period, Effects of Led Lightening on the Quantity of Mineral Substrates and Leaf Nitrate

Seda Bice Ataklı, Sezer Şahin

Asian Journal of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/ajsspn/2019/v5i330065

Aims: This study was performed during early spring and winter period of 2015-2016 by utilizing soilles technique in a non-heated glasshouse that belongs to Gaziosmanpaşa University Faculty of Agriculture.

Study Design: Whereas Funly F1 lettuce species was used as vegetal materials, 2:1 ratio cocopeat and perlite mixture was used as cultivation environment. According to the experiment design, experiment coincidence parcels were performed as 3-recurrences. In the experiment, the effects of different colored LED lights (blue, yellow, red, blue + yellow, blue + red, yellow + red, blue + yellow + red) additional to sunlight were examined.

Results: SMD strip LEDs with different colors were used as light source. The light practice does not affect on the plant diameter, plant lenght, SÇKM, pH, titered acid, vitamin C and plant nutrient concentrations. Statistically significant difference occured in the yield of spring and winter curly leaf head salad. There was also an increase at 1% importance level in the light practices compared to the control. In the experiment, red and red blue light combinations had an increase of 1% in the curly leaf head salads in the yield rate when it was compared to the control. Whereas the highest total plant head weight was 840 gr/piece in spring practice, and it was 732 gr/piece for the red light practices in winter practice. Compared to the control, the amount of plant leaf nitrate for the light practices resulted in a decrease at 1% importance level in the curly leaf head salad. When the results were compared with the control conditions, the lowest nitrate contents were obtained as 1764.5 mg NO3-kg- in spring practices, 1898.6 NO3-kg- in winter practices.

Coclusion: More amount of nitrate was observed on the leaves of curly leaf head salad in winter practice compared to the one in spring. The amount of leaf nitrate decreased in the light practices compared to the control. As a result, the red and blue light practices and their combinations improved the amount of yield and plant growth by reducing nitrate content.

Open Access Original Research Article

Diagnosis and Recommendation Integrated System (DRIS) in Determining Mineral Status of Cotton in the Cotton Zones of Benin

Isidore Amonmidé, Gustave D. Dagbénonbakin, P. B. Irénikatché Akponikpè, Emile C. Agbangba, Pierre G. Tovihoudji

Asian Journal of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/ajsspn/2019/v5i330066

This study aimed at developing parameters of the Diagnosis and Recommendation Integrated System (DRIS) model for the assessment nutrient status for cotton grown in Benin.. Soil physical and chemical characteristics, leaves nutrient content (N, P, K, Ca, Mg) and seed-cotton yield were assessed on samples gathered from 150 farmers’ fields in 2018. Nutrient indices were computed using standard DRIS procedures. Results showed that phosphorus was in excess in the petiole and the whole leaves but in deficit in the limb. Potassium content was adequate according in the petiole and leaves but deficient in the limb. Ca content was limiting in the limb or the whole leaves and adequate in the petiole. Based on the diagnosis made in the petioles, Mg was deficient while adequate in the limbs and leaves. In the limb, the order of the macronutrients is as follows: K> P> N. On the other side, in the petiole and the whole leaves, the order of the macronutrients becomes: P> K> N. In the whole leaves and limb, the order of the secondary elements is as follows: Mg> Ca, whereas in the petiole the order of the secondary elements becomes: Ca> Mg.

Open Access Original Research Article

Water from Cooked Beans as Substrate for Some Heterotrophic Organisms: Case Study of Moulds

J. C. Fopoussi Tuebue, S. D. Basga, P. Tematio, J. P. Nguetnkam

Asian Journal of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, Page 1-15
DOI: 10.9734/ajsspn/2019/v5i330067

The discovery of new ecological fertilizers can sustainably enhance plants nutrition. In that point of view, the present study aimed to demonstrate the high concentration of water from cooked beans in organic compounds, various mineral salts and water. For that purpose, moulds were used because of the above listed elements as their basic feeding needs. Cold water from cooked beans was collected and kept during five days at open-air; the evolution of its aspect was daily followed up. The experimental design was a randomized complete block in 10 replicates; an eleventh bucket filled with the same water was used to perform some of its characterization. The moulds are Aspergillus L. The water from cooked beans is a heterogeneous mixture and particularly a globular proteic suspension. At rest, it organizes itself in a superficial flaky domain and a lower liquid domain. The flaky domain is mainly organic and the liquid domain is mainly both mineral and aqueous. The density of the flaky domain was 0.964 and that of the aqueous domain was1.011. The average speed of the growth of Aspergillus L. at the surface of the water from cooked beans was 3,17 cm2/H; they cover then in five days a surface of 379.74 cm2. The exponential growth of Aspergillus L. at the surface of the water from cooked beans generated a continuous decreasing of the pH; this behavior shows that the water from cooked beans seems to be an adequate substrate; it then implicitly contains all the nutrients required for their optimal development; this include water, organic matters and mineral salts among which nitrogen, potassium, phosphorus, sulfur and calcium can be named; it is then a complete liquid organic fertilizer. That water appears also as a high grade activator for soils micro flora. Peasants could thus save a lot of money by using this liquid single or in combination with other fertilizers to promote the sustainable development of agriculture in their ecosystems.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Liming on Dithionate and Oxalate Extractable Aluminium in Acid Soils

Esther Mwende Muindi

Asian Journal of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/ajsspn/2019/v5i330069

Liming and phosphorus (P) applications are recommended practices for improving crop production in acid soils of the tropics. Although considerable work has been done to establish liming rates for acid soils in many parts of the world, information on the effects of lime on the forms of aluminium which actively sorb P in such soils is minimal. A greenhouse pot experiment was conducted at Waruhiu Farmers Training Centre, Githunguri to evaluate the effect of liming on oxalate and dithionate extractable aluminium in acid soils. Extremely (pH 4.48) and strongly (pH 4.59) acidic soils were evaluated. Four liming (CaO) rates namely 0, 2.2, 5.2 and 7.4 tonnes ha-1 for extremely acidic and 0, 1.4, 3.2, and 4.5 tonnes ha-1 for  strongly acidic soils were evaluated. The experiment was laid out in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) and replicated three times. Data collected included: initial soil chemical properties, oxalate (Alo) and dithionate (Ald) aluminium levels. The tested soils had high exchangeable Al (> 2 cmol Al kg-1), Al saturation of (> 20% Al) and low extractable P values (< 15 mg P kg-1 soil). Liming significantly (p=.05) reduced Alo by 70% and 68% in extremely and strongly acidic soils respectively and Ald by 78% in both extremely and strongly acidic soils compared to control. Use of 7.4 tonnes ha-1 of lime in extremely acidic soils and 4.5 tonnes ha-1 of lime in strongly acidic soils significantly (p=.05) reduced both Alo and Ald by > 68% compared to no lime. It was, therefore, concluded that liming contributes to the reduction of soluble Alo and Ald in acid soils of the Kenya highlands leading to increased soluble P availability. Studies are required to provide short and long term optimal liming rates that reduce Alo and Ald without distabilizing availability of other nutrients in field conditions under wide range of acid soils.