Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Different Levels of Phosphorous and Zinc Fertilizers on the Yield and Nutrient Uptake of Maize (Zea mays L.) on Luvisols in Northern Guinea Savannah Region of Nigeria

Maryam Abdullahi, Abubakar Bello

Asian Journal of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/ajsspn/2020/v6i430093

The study aimed to determine the effects of different levels of phosphorous and zinc fertilizers on the yield and nutrient uptake of maize (Zea mays L.) The experiments were  conducted in a factorial experiment under Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) to determine the effect of P and Zn applications on TZL white composite improved variety            of maize. Four levels of phosphorus (0, 10, 20 and 30 kg P ha-1) and three levels of zinc (0, 5 and 10kg Zn ha-1) were applied on experimental plots of 4.5m x 5m replicated thrice.  The results shows no significant differences in both the  years however, highest mean values of 2327.5 kg ha-1  and 2191.5 kg ha-1 was recorded at 20 kg P ha-1 and 10 kg Zn ha-1 Application of P and Zn at different rates increases their uptake in the stover with highest values of 22.57 mg -1 kg  and 7.8 mg -1 kg  in 2018  at 30 kg Pha-1 and 18.40 mg -1 kg  and 5.21 mg -1 kg  at 20 kg Pha-1  in 2019. While 26.54 mg -1 kg and 21.85 mg -1 kg in 2018 at 10 kg Znha-1 and 6.76 mg -1 kg and 5.27 mg -1 kg in 2019 with 0 kg Znha-1 respectively. It is therefore recommended the best results of the application of 30kg P ha-1 and 10 kg Zn ha -1 should be adopted for optimum yield of maize.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Cropping System under Tillage and Mulching on Soil Physical Properties and Water Use Efficiency by Maize (Zea mays L.) in Southern Benin

Alladassi Félix Kouelo, Mahugnon Socrate Agonvinon, Julien Avakoudjo, Tobi Moriaque Akplo, Pascal Houngnandan, Hessou Anastase Azontonde

Asian Journal of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, Page 8-22
DOI: 10.9734/ajsspn/2020/v6i430094

In agriculture, water has become a limiting factor because of the effects of climate change felt by farmers. This situation seriously compromises agricultural production through pockets of drought, delayed and early cessation of rains and then an increase in the length of the dry season.

Aims: This study aims to evaluate the effect of tillage and vegetative mulch on soil physical properties and maize water use efficiency in ferralitic soil of southern Benin.

Study Design: The Factorial Complete Randomized Block Design with 4 repetitions was implemented.

Place and Duration of Study: The experimental site is located at Allada, in southern Benin, and conducted between May 2017 and July 2017.

Methodology: Tillage (No-tillage, flat tillage) and straw mulch rate (0%, 50%, 75% soil cover) and their interaction was been tested during this study. The physical properties of soil and maize water use efficiency were determined.

Results: Tillage significantly reduced soil temperature by 2.65% and improved soil permeability by 60%. Tillage also significantly improved water use efficiency for maize grain from 3.88 to 7.88 kg.mm-1.ha-1 and for maize biomass from 12.67to 23.31 kg.mm-1.ha-1. Mulching significantly improved soil moisture from 11.54% to 13.13%, water use efficiency for maize grain from 4.26 to 7.58kg.mm-1.ha-1 and for maize biomass from 14.50 to 22.05 kg.mm-1.ha-1. Mulching also significantly reduced soil temperature by 11%. The combination of tillage and mulching significantly improved water use efficiency for maize grain and biomass production. The highest water use efficiency (8.87 kg.mm-1.ha-1 for maize grain and 25.17 kg.mm-1.ha-1 for maize biomass) was achieved with tillage combined with mulching at 75% soil cover. The interaction between these two factors significantly reduced soil temperature by 11.30% (tillage combined with mulch at 75% soil cover) compared to control (no-tillage and no-mulch).

Conclusion: This study showed that tillage and mulching at 50% or 75% soil cover improves soil physical properties and water use efficiency for maize production in the context of climate change.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Efficiency of Calcium Boron and Carpox-K Sprays on Fruit Quality of Washington Navel Orange Trees

A. A. EL- Khwaga, F. M. Abd El- Latif, M. H. M. Baiea, S. F. EL- Gioushy

Asian Journal of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, Page 23-31
DOI: 10.9734/ajsspn/2020/v6i430095

This research was conducted during seasons 2018 & 2019 on nine-years-old Washington navel orange trees. These trees were grafted on Sour orange rootstock, planted at 5 x 5 meters apart, under surface irrigation conditions, in a private orchard at Manzala village, Toukh region, Qalubia Governorate, Egypt. The seven treatments were used for comparison as follows: T1-100% of chemical NPK (NPK fertilization program adopted at 5, 3 and 1 kg/tree from (NH4)2SO4, superphosphate and K2SO4, respectively) according to the Ministry of Agriculture Recommendation (Control or recommended doses RD). T2-RD+Calcium boron 2 cm3 /L; T3-RD+Calcium boron 3 cm3/L; T4-RD+Carpox-K 1g/L; T5-RD+Carpox-K 1.5g/L; T6-RD+Calcium boron 2 cm3 /L +Carpox-K 1g/L, and T7-RD+Calcium boron 3 cm3/L +Carpox-K 1.5g/L.  The main goal of this investigation was directed towards increasing Washington navel orange fruit quality. The obtained data revealed that all investigated treatments increased fruit quality parameters (physical and chemical properties). However, T7- RD + Calcium boron 3 cm3 /L + Carpox-K 1.5g/L was statistically superior. On the contrary, T1- Control or recommended doses (RD) ranked statistically the lowest treatment in this concern. From the obtained results, It can be concluded that the use of RD+ Calcium boron 3 cm3 / L + Carpox-K 1.5g / L or RD+ Calcium boron 2 cm3/ L + Carpox-K 1g / L could be safely recommended under similar environmental and horticultural practises adopted in this experiment.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Nutrient Enriched Municipal Solid Waste Compost on Yield and Nutrient Content of Cabbage in Alluvial Soil

Marufa Sultana, Mohammad Jahiruddin, Mohammad Rafiqul Islam, Mohammad Mazibur Rahman, Md. Anwarul Abedin

Asian Journal of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, Page 32-42
DOI: 10.9734/ajsspn/2020/v6i430097

Composting of municipal solid waste (MSW) is a good option for solid waste recycling, but its use by the farmers is limited because of its very low nutrient status.

Aims: The study aimed at nutrient enrichment of marketed MSW compost by using some organic materials and evaluating the influence of nutrient enriched MSW compost on yield and nutrient content of cabbage (Brassica oleracea L.).

Place and Duration of Study: MSW compost amendment, field experiment and nutrient analysis were carried out at Bangladesh Agricultural University (BAU), Mymensingh during October 2017 to June 2018.

Methodology: We prepared three types of amended compost by mixing 20% mustard oil cake (MOC), and 30% poultry manure (PM) or cow dung (CD) or sugarcane press mud (SPM) with 50% MSW compost. A liquid culture of Trichoderma viride was inoculated to every type of compost. The field experiment was conducted to evaluate the performance of the amended MSW composts on yield and nutrient content of cabbage (cv. Atlas-70), and on soil fertility. The experimental soil was silt loam having 6.7 pH and 2.79% organic matter; according to Soil Taxonomy it belongs to Aeric Haplaquept under the order Inceptisols.

Results: Based on the yield and nutrient concentration (N, P, K & S) of cabbage, the treatment containing 50% fertilizers + 50% compost mixture (MSW compost + MOC + SPM in a ratio of 5:2:3) demonstrated the best result followed by poultry manure amended compost. Use of the amended composts had residual effects on soil showing an increased N, P, K & S content.

Conclusion: Organic amendment of MSW compost inoculated with Trichoderma is a noble means to increase the nutrient status of marketed MSW compost and improve the soil fertility and crop productivity. The results have significant value in fertilizer management strategies for vegetables cultivation in sub-tropical countries.

Open Access Original Research Article

Response of Soil Chemical Properties to Rhizobium and Rock Phosphate Fertilizer Application under Green - Grams in Tharaka Nithi County, Kenya

F. K. Mbaka, H. O. Ndukhu, G. O. Oloo-Abucheli

Asian Journal of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, Page 43-52
DOI: 10.9734/ajsspn/2020/v6i430099

Soil fertility decline is one of the major constraints in agricultural productivity. Biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) in legumes can offer a cost-effective and sustainable means towards soil fertility management. There is limited information on green-gram BNF enhancement through Rhizobium inoculation with rock phosphate fertilizer. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of Rhizobium and rock phosphate fertilizer application on soil chemical properties under green-gram varieties. The study was carried out at Chuka university horticultural research farm in two seasons (November 2019 - January 2020 and February - April 2020). A factorial experiment of 2 x 2 x 2 was laid out in a randomized complete block design (RCBD). There were three factors; varieties (N26 and KS20), rock phosphate (0 and 30 kg P ha-1) and Rhizobium inoculation (0 and 100 g ha-1) making a total of eight treatments which were replicated three times. Soil sampling and analyses were done for soil pH, fixed-N, total nitrogen (TN), exchangeable cations (EC), available Phosphorous (P), total organic carbon (TOC), and exchangeable potassium (K) before planting and after harvesting of green-grams for the two seasons. Data was analysed using GENSTAT 15th edition (P≤0.05). Results from both seasons indicated that combined application of rock phosphate at 30 kg P ha-1 and Rhizobium inoculation at 100 kg ha-1 showed significant (P≤0.05) higher increase in soil chemical properties over other treatments. However, treatment R1P1KS20 recorded significantly higher results in soil pH (7.54), TN (0.58%), TOC (3.45%), P (68.20 ppm) and EC (0.95 CmolKg-1), fixed-N (0.50%) and K (1.75 CmolKg-1). On the other hand treatment R0P0N26 recorded significant (P≤0.05) lower results in soil pH (5.23), TN (0.04%), TOC (1.86%), P (8.76 ppm), EC (0.21 CmolKg-1) and K (0.58 CmolKg-1). Therefore, Rhizobium inoculation in green-grams in combination with rock phosphate is an important legume nitrogen fixation enhancement method. This method is cost effective for farmers in sustainably supplementing nitrogen and phosphorous in their farms for improved soil fertility management. Based on the findings, combining Rhizobium 100g ha-1 and rock phosphate 30 kg P ha-1 with variety KS20 were recommended for a sustainable soil fertility management in Tharaka Nithi County.