Open Access Original Research Article

Nutrient use Efficiency in Calcareous Soil Amended by the Silicate, Humate and Compost

Dalal H. Sary, Rama T. Rashad

Asian Journal of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/ajsspn/2021/v7i330112

Aims: A study was carried out in the field aims to study the response of a calcareous soil cultivated by soybean to the application of K-silicate (K-Si), K-humate (K-H), and compost at application rates 50% and 100% of the recommended dose.

Study Design: Complete randomized block design with three replicates.

Place and Duration of Study: At El-Nubaryia Agricultural Research Station (latitude of 30° 30°N longitude of 30° 20°E) Agricultural Research Center (ARC), Nubaryia, Egypt (Summer seasons of 2018 and 2019).

Methodology: Compost was mixed with surface soil a week before cultivation at application rates 3.75 and 7.5 kg plot-1 (3.91 and 7.81 t ha-1, respectively). Powder K-H was spread on soil at application rates 7.5 and 15 g plot-1 while aqueous solutions of K-Si; 8 and 16 mL L-1 for plot was sprayed on soil 30, 60, and 90 days after cultivation.

Results: Results showed that soil moisture(SM, %) was increased by the 100% application rate in the order compost (20.6%) > K-Si (19.3%) > K-H (19.1%). A significant increase was found in the seed yield (kg ha-1) by 129.5%, 84.8% and 70.6% by compost, K-H and K-Si, respectively. Compost at 100% application rate showed the most significant increase in the available nitrogen N (mg kg-1) in soil by 104.4% followed by K-H (by 81.8%) then K-Si by 23.4%. Compost also showed the most significant increase in the N uptake from soil (kg ha-1 soil) by seeds and straw followed by K-H then K-Si. The nutrient use efficiency (NUE, %) and agronomic efficiency (AE) values decreased in the order K-H > K-Si > compost at 50% and 100% application rates.

Conclusion: The quite smaller dose and ease of field application by spraying may make the K-H more agronomically efficient than K-Si and compost.

Open Access Original Research Article

Glomus intraradices and Funneliformis mosseae am Strains Influence on Soil Physical, Biological and Chemical Characteristics in Tea Plantations in Kenya

Awa Chelangat, Joseph P Gweyi-Onyango, Nicholas K Korir, Maina Mwangi

Asian Journal of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, Page 13-18
DOI: 10.9734/ajsspn/2021/v7i330113

Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi occur over a wide range of agro climatic conditions and are geographically ubiquitous. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi are the medium of soil structure, they determine the flow of water, nutrients, and air, directs the pathways of root growth, and opens channels for the movement of soil animals. As the moderator of the microbial community, they also determine the metabolic processes of the soil. In other words, the mycorrhizal network is practically synonymous with ecosystem function. The tremendous advances in research on mycorrhizal physiology and ecology over the past 40 years have led to a greater understanding of the multiple roles of AMF in the ecosystem. The current study was informed due to the depletion of nutrients and poor soil microbiology in tea production whose production has declined in the recent years. The trial was conducted in the research and development greenhouse at the James Finlays Farm in Kericho County, Kenya. The experiment was laid out in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with factorial arrangements of tea clones and mycorrhizae levels. The phosphorus treatments consisted of a standard rate of 107.66kg ha -1, two clones of the tea (S15/10 and SC 12/28) and two mycorrhizal strains (Funneliformis mosseae and Glomus intraradices) at two rates (50 kg ha-1 and 70 kg ha-1) and an untreated control without mycorrhizae. The soil pH was positively influenced by reducing the acidity content significantly where mycorrhizae strains were introduced with the highest unit change (1.3) was recorded on clone SC 12/28 at the 50 kg Mycorrhizae ha-1 rate. The same treatment also significantly increased the soil total phosphorus level (2.3 g/kg) compared to all other treatments with the least change observed on the control. Application of AMF strains Glomus intraradices and Funneliformis mosseae is recommended in tea production at the rate of 50 kg ha-1 which improves and enhances the general positive characteristics of soil health.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Prilled Urea, Urea Briquettes and NPK Briquettes on the Growth, Yield and Nitrogen use Efficiency of BRRI Dhan48

S. B. Z. Sharna, S. Islam, A. Huda, M. Jahiruddin, M. R. Islam

Asian Journal of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, Page 19-27
DOI: 10.9734/ajsspn/2021/v7i330114

Nitrogen is one of the most deficient plant nutrients in Bangladesh soils. The use nitrogenous fertilizer especially urea is a commonly used fertilizer for rice production but its efficiency very low about 30-40% under traditional broadcast method A field experiment was carried out  in the Soil Science Field Laboratory of Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh during Aus rice growing season of 2014 to investigate the effects of prilled urea, urea briquettes and NPK briquettes on the growth, yield, and nitrogen use efficiency of BRRI dhan48. There were six treatments as T1 [check (N0P16K42], T2 [Urea briquette (one-3.4 g) (N52P16K42)], T3 (Urea briquette (one-2.7 g (N78P16K42)], T4 [NPK briquette (one-3.4g)(N51P13K32], T5 [Prilled urea (N78P16K42)] and T6 [NPK briquettes(two-2.4 g briquettes (N78P15K42)]. The experiment was laid out in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with six treatments and four replications. Prilled urea was applied in two equal splits application; at 8 days after transplanting (DAT) and the second dose after 38 DAT, while for urea briquettes and NPK briquettes were deep placed (8-10 cm depth) at 8 DAT between four hills at alternate rows. Water samples were collected for every 7 consecutive days and analyzed for NH4-N. The results showed that the NH4-N concentration in floodwater reached to maximum on day 2 in PU treated plots and then decreased  with time, while the urea briquettes and NPK briquettes treated plots slowly produced NH4-N over the growth period. The highest grain yield of 4.75 t ha-1 (69% over control) was obtained in the treatment T3 [Urea briquette (one-2.7g) (N78P16K42)]. The treatment T3 also produced the highest straw yield of 5.49 t ha-1. The maximum apparent N recovery and the maximum N use efficiency were found in the treatment T4 [NPK briquette (one-3.4g) (N51P13K32)]. It appeared that the deep placement of urea briquettes and NPK briquettes reduced N-losses and enhanced the recovery of applied N as well as N use efficiency in comparison with PU application.

Open Access Original Research Article

Influence of N:P:K Ratios in Soils on Growth, Nutrient Availability and Yield of Maize (Zea mays L.)

A. O. Bakare, I. O. Osemwota

Asian Journal of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, Page 28-40
DOI: 10.9734/ajsspn/2021/v7i330115

This study was undertaken in two distinct ecological zones of Edo state of Nigeria to determine the effects of N:P:K ratios applied to the soils on the availability of N, P, K and on yield of maize. The sites used were Rubber Research Institute of Nigeria (RRIN) Iyanomo (Rain forest) and the Teaching and Research Farms of Ambrose Alli University, Emaudo, Ekpoma (derived savanna). Soils from both sites were analyzed for both physical and chemical properties before the commencement of the experiments. The experiments were carried out as: Pot and Field experiments. Each of the experiments had ten treatments (adjusted ratios) that were fitted into randomized complete block design and replicated three times, with maize as the test crop. Results from pot experiment in the screen house revealed that N:P:K ratio 4:1:1 had the highest dry matter yield for both locations, (RRIN; 7.10 g/pot and Emaudo; 6.33 g/pot) but these values were not significantly different (P < 0.05) from what were obtained from N:P:K ratio 3:1:1 and 2:1:1, respectively. The N:P:K ratio in soil had influence on the availability of N,P and K. Under field conditions, N:P:K ratio 3:1:1 had the highest grain yield for both locations (RRIN; 5.54 ton/ha and Emaudo; 5.25 ton/ha). The N:P:K ratio 3:1:1 was the best ratio with the highest yield for both locations and is therefore suggested for these soils.

Open Access Original Research Article

Phosphorus Sorption in Soils Overlying Basement Complex Rock, Alluvium, Coastal Plain Sand and Imo Shale Parent Materials

Robert Ehi Orhue, Adams Emomu, Esohe Obazuaye, Aimiesomon Michael Erhayimwen, Ajayi Gboyega Bepo

Asian Journal of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, Page 41-54
DOI: 10.9734/ajsspn/2021/v7i330116

This study aimed at evaluating phosphorus (P) sorption capacities in Soils overlying basement complex Rock (A), Alluvium (B), coastal plain sand (C) and Imo shale (C) parent materials.

Completely randomized design was used to collect soil samples from 5 depths in 3 replications from Idanre, Koko, NIFOR and Uhomora in Nigeria.

Samples collected were analyzed in the central analytical laboratory of the Nigerian Institute for Oil palm Research, Benin City, Nigeria between march 2016 and September 2017.

60 soil samples were equilibrated in 25 ml of 0.01 M CaCl2 containing various concentration of P as KH2PO4  to give 0, 50, 100, 150, 200 and 250 mg/L P for 24 hours (h)  at room temperature 25 ± 2 oC. Genstat statistical package was used to calculate Analysis of variance, correlation of Phosphorus sorption index (PSI) with soil properties, coefficient of variation, means separation and Least Significant difference (LSD).

The rate and %P adsorption increased with increasing concentration of P added to the soils. The P sorption capacities of the soils considering Freundlich model decreased in the order of D > B > C >A. %P adsorbed was highest in D soils with value of 15.19% for 100 mg/kg P added. The PSI correlated with organic carbon r = -0.58 P ≤ .05 in C soils, r = 0.44 P ≤ .05 in D soils, it also correlated with N r = -0.58 P ≤ .05 in C Soils, K r = 0.57 P ≤ .05, r = 0.49 P ≤ .05 in C and D soils respectively.

D soils sorbed more P than other soils hence the D soils will require more P fertilization to attain optimum P concentration in soil solution, however further study is required to determine the form of P sorbed by these parent materials.