Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Organic and Inorganic Fertilizers Applications Levels on Greenhouse Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) Yield and Soil Quality in Khost Province

Rahmatullah Hashimi, Hukum Khan Habibi

Asian Journal of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/ajsspn/2021/v7i430117

The study was carried out to determine the effect of organic and inorganic fertilizers on tomato yield and soil quality.  The study was performed in a randomized complete block design consisting of 7 treatments with 3 replications in the research farm, Shaikh Zayed University, Khost, Afghanistan. The fertilizers treatments were T1, organic fertilizer (5 t/ha); T2, organic fertilizer (10 t/ha); T3, urea (150 Kg/ha); T4, urea (200 Kg/ha); T5, mixed fertilizers (organic fertilizer 3 t/ha + urea (100 Kg/ha); T6, mixed fertilizers (organic fertilizer 6 t/ha + urea (70 Kg/ha) and T7 a control. Results indicate that applications of inorganic fertilizers with a combination of organic fertilizers increased tomato yield and improves the nutrient status of the soil. T5 showed the highest yield of tomato and followed by T4 treatment, which were 33.1 and 31.7 t/ha respectively. The lower yield were obtained in T7 and T1 treatments. The highest plant heights (205.0 and 199.0 cm) were obtained in T5 and T4 respectively, while the lowest plant heights were obtained in T1 treatment and followed by T7 treatment. Similarly, we found that a combination of both inorganic and organic fertilizers application also is the best strategy to improve soil nutrients, maintain soil fertility. Soil P2O5 and K2O, where the highest amounts were obtained in T5 and followed by T6, which were 26.5, 22.5 and 44.5 and 41.5 mg/L respectively. The control treatment had the lowest amount of P2O5 and K2O. Therefore, this study suggests that an appropriate amount of organic fertilizer with inorganic fertilizer not only increased tomato yield but also improve soil fertility.

Open Access Original Research Article

Response of Zucchini Plants to Nano and Organic Fertilizers Application Grown in Sandy Soil

Alaa Eldeen A. Shaheen, A. K. Abdel Fattah

Asian Journal of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, Page 11-22
DOI: 10.9734/ajsspn/2021/v7i430118

Nanotechnology and organic fertilization are represented the most important tools for agriculture and anticipated to become a driving economic force in the near future. Two field experiments were carried out on sandy soil at El Ismailia Research Station, Agriculture Research Center Egypt, to study the effects of application of nitrogen fertilizer, as black urea, Nano black urea and organic fertilizer FMY, nutrients and productivity of Cucurbita pepo L. Two rates of FMY at 50 and 100 m3 ha-1 was applied to the soil with soil application of black urea and Nano black urea) with applied both as foliar application on plants. A split-plot design with four replications for each treatment was used, during the two summer seasons of 2019 and 2020. Results obtained showed that yield components of plants increased with applied Nano black urea and black urea accompanied with application both rates of FMY. The Nano black urea accompanied with FMY applied at a rate of 100 m3 ha-1 give the highest yield values. However, effective treatment was foliar Nano black urea application with a rate of 0.5 ppm with organic fertilizer FMY at rate of 100 m3 ha-1 and gave the highest significant values of fruits yield (300, 327, 342, 356 and 373 g plant-1 for five times picked, respectively. On the other hands, in foliar application, fruits weight yield was higher than the first cut. Nutrients contents showed almost a trend as all parameters under study the superior treatment was at Nano black urea foliar application a rate of 0.5 ppm with 100 m3 ha-1 of FMY with high availability of nutrients at the studied soil.

Open Access Original Research Article

Salinity and Sodicity Status of the Floodplain Soils of Kebbi State, North Western, Nigeria

M. A. Augie, M. A. Adegbite

Asian Journal of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, Page 23-31
DOI: 10.9734/ajsspn/2021/v7i430119

Floodplain soils are the sites for most of agricultural activities during dry seasons. With efficient irrigation facilities such as tube wells and water pumps, they can produce 2-3 short duration crops during a year. However, due to persistent irrigation activities, these soils are always susceptible to salinization and sodicity hazards. High salt content in the soil inhibits uptake of plant nutrients and water, while high sodium content in sodic soils destroys soil structure and consequently reduces the rate of permeability and aeration. In view of this, it becomes necessary to assess the level of salinity and sodicity of the floodplain soils of the study area; Augie, Argungu, Birnin Kebbi and Bunza Local Government Area of Kebbi State, so as to ascertain the appropriate management practices to be applied on these soils. Soluble salts were as such analyzed. It was observed that the calcium (Ca2+), magnesium (Mg2+), potassium (K+) and Sodium (Na2+), were in the value of 1.90cmol(+)kg-1, 1.66cmol(+)kg-1, 0.16cmol(+)kg-1, and 0.34cmol(+)kg-1, respectively. Salinity and sodicity determinants were also analyzed where pH was observed to be 6.88, electrical conductivity (EC) 0.19dSm-1 exchangeable sodium percentage (ESP) 2.09%. The data were subjected to statistical analysis so as understand the relationship between the four local government areas. Based on the concentration of pH, EC and ESP, the soils could be said to be free from salinity and sodicity hazards at least for now. However, due to the high concentration of Mg2+, K+ and Na+, the soils could be said to have potential threat to salinity and sodicity problems and therefore proper management strategies should be practiced to prevent their further concentration.

Open Access Original Research Article

Soil Chemical Properties Changes under Alley Cropping in Terrace Ecosystem of Bangladesh

A. S. M. J. Alam, S. R. Saha, M. G. Miah, M. M. Rahman, M. R. Islam, A. K. Das

Asian Journal of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, Page 32-42
DOI: 10.9734/ajsspn/2021/v7i430120

Soil health needs to be improved for the sustenance of a productive agriculture and sound environment where alley cropping system might play a vital role. The study was composed of two factors viz. three alley widths of Gliricidia sepium (3.0, 4.5 and 6.0 m), and five nitrogen levels (0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% of the recommended dose) along with pruned materials in a split-plot design with three replications. The soil chemical properties were examined in alleys of Gliricidia sepium tree over two consecutive seasons. Results displayed that pruned materials (PM) of G. sepium increased the soil pH, organic carbon (OC), total nitrogen (N), available phosphorus (P) and sulfur (S), exchangeable calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), potassium (K), and cation exchange capacity (CEC) of soil in different alley widths compared to the control. However, alley width 3.0 m and 100% N along with PM displayed the maximum OC (0.94%), total N (0.21%), available P (16.26 ppm), exchangeable Ca (2.54 meq/100 g) and Mg (0.90 meq/100 g), while maximum exchangeable K and CEC were noted in alley width 4.5 m and 100% N along with PM. The above results explicated that the improvement of the soil chemical properties by using pruned materials of G. sepium in alleys can be a promising option for uplifting the soil health condition as well as sustainable agricultural practices.

Open Access Original Research Article

Phytochemicals, Heavy Metal and Proximate Analysis of Parkia biglobosa and Three Varieties of Bouillon Cubes (Purchased From Iyana Iba Market, Ojo Local Government Area in Lagos, Nigeria

A. A. Adu, O. J. Aderinola, O. Avoseh, R. S. Bamiwola, A. E. Adegorite, T. H. Olaoye, O. A. Adeboyejo

Asian Journal of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, Page 43-56
DOI: 10.9734/ajsspn/2021/v7i430121

Despite the huge nutritional values and availability of local seasonings such as Parkia biglobosa, knorr chicken as food seasonings, some developing countries like Nigeria require more information on the needs for increasing their utilization. Analysis was done using standard analytical methods, to compare the nutritional and heavy metal composition of P. biglobosa seed and bouillon cubes (Knorr chicken, magi star and Tasty cubes). The specific focus was to find out the proximate analysis (carbohydrate, fat, protein and vitamin), heavy metals, Minerals and phytochemicals composition of P. biglobosa and bouillon cubes. Atomic absorption spectrometry was used in the determination of the levels of (Ca, Mg, K, Na, Mn, Fe, Cu and Zn). Phytochemicals, including phytic acid, tannins, carotenoids, phenols, saponins and hydrocyanic acid were also determined using method of Ola and Oboh [19]. The result shows that the seeds of P. biglobosa had significantly higher (p<0.05) Moisture (17.530±3.686) crude protein (25.722±3.524%), crude fat (27.536±2.273%) and Crude fiber (6.540±1.795%) contents compared to the bouillon cubes (Knorr chicken, Maggi Star, tasty cubes). The bouillon cubes had significantly higher (p>0.05) contents of ash (22.188±0.950, 24.092±0.911, 22.880±0.736) which is found to be low in P. biglobosa seed. Carbohydrate level in bouillon cubes were also found to have higher means values of (28.87±1.581, 46.785±2.243, 38.035±12.574). The minerals content of the analyzed samples shows that the P. biglobosa seeds have higher means value in Ca (126.285±16.393), Na (150.820±25.075), and K (1454.432±199.575) and bouillon  cubes were also found to be high in  (Ca, Na , K , Fe), respectively. While the values of (Mn, Zn, Cr  Cb, Pb  pH) were found to have low mean value which were higher than WHO permissible limits. For the ANFs,  P. biglobosa seeds recorded higher levels of  Phytic acid (31.171±8.369 mg/100g), saponins (15.767±4.663 mg/100g) and tannins (55.772±6.655 mg/100g), Total carotenoids (41.561±2.632), Total phenols (65.689±14.439), Hydrocyanic acid (7.618±1.922mg/100g) and Ascorbic acid (101.025±11.670 mg/100g) while it was not detected (ND) in bouillon cubes on analysis. T he heavy metal contents in P. biglobosa was found to be high in copper with mean value of (2.478±2.077) while it was found to be insignificant in (Cr, Cb, and pb)  and are not within the recommended value by WHO. The overall results are suggestive of higher nutritional quality of the Parkia biglobosa seeds than the bouillon cubes. It was therefore recommended that information concerning the use of local seasonings should be made available through public awareness campaign.

Open Access Original Research Article

Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi Association with Some Selected Medicinal Plants

R. Abdullahi, J. S. Kwari, A. M. Zubairu

Asian Journal of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, Page 57-62
DOI: 10.9734/ajsspn/2021/v8i130122

Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are group of fungi of the order Glomales that form symbiotic association with plant roots and enhance the uptake of nutrients, and improve plant growth and yield. This study was conducted to investigate the occurrence of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in the rhizospheres of some commonly grown medicinal plants in Maiduguri viz; Aloe vera, Mentha, Cymbopogon citrates and Ocimum gratissimum. The results revealed all the plants have formed mycorrhiza symbiosis. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi spores from five genera (Glomus, Acaulospora, Dentiscutata, Scutellispora and Gigaspora were isolated and identified. Cymbopogon citrates significantly recorded the highest total AMF spore counts (90±4.17) while Aloe vera recorded the least (54±2.28). Amongst the five mycorrhiza genus Glomus species were comparatively higher under all plant species, while, Dentiscutata and Gigaspora had the lowest spore counts. Highest percent root colonization   (72±4.23%) was recorded under Cymbopogon citrates and Aloe vera recorded the least (55.5 ±2.41%). The study confirmed mycorrhiza association with all the plants, however, AMF spore counts diversity varies with plant species. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi could be inoculated to soils with scanty or ineffective spores for enhanced plant nutrition and growth of medicinal plants.

Open Access Original Research Article

Function and Characterization of Fungal Communities in Chestnut Soils (Castanea crenata) of Kansai Region, Japan

Hosne Ara Dilzahan, Atsushi Okamura, Michelle Ann Calubaquib, Nolissa Delmo Organo, Masahide Kobayashi, Andre Freire Cruz

Asian Journal of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, Page 63-75
DOI: 10.9734/ajsspn/2021/v8i130123

Chestnut (Castanea crenata) is an important fruit crop in Japan, grown under three cultivation systems in Kansai region, which succumb to fungal root disease pathogens. The fungal community in soils of chestnut in these cultivation systems were characterized along with the potential of soil bacterial species as biological control agent against these root-invading fungi. Bacteria from the chestnut soil rhizosphere were identified and their ability to suppress diseases in vitro was evaluated. Bacteria DAC17225011 and DAC17225014 showed 99% similarity to Bacillus aryabhattai and Pseudomonas frederiksbergensis, respectively, which could suppress the growth of Armilaria mellea and Phytophtora cambivora, respectively, in vitro conditions. The assay in vivo indicated the positive effect of these bacteria on the reduction of disease infection spots in chestnut roots; however, no visible symptoms were detected aboveground. For microbial community analysis, chestnut soil was sampled from four locations (Wachi, Ayabe, Fukuchiyama and Sasayama) considering three management systems, conventional, organic and wild. The amplicon from the ITS region (The genomic library of the fungal detection in soils) was sequenced by Illumina MiSeq 250bp and used to analyze the fungal community in the sampled soil. Nectriaceae, which contains pathogenic fungi, was very common in all samples, but lower in wild areas. Ceratobasidiacea was also higher in conventional areas. For the symbiotic families, Hypocraceae and Russulaceae were typical in wild soils, whereas Amanitaceae was found in organic soils. The fungal community was clearly distinct in the wild system, differing from conventional and organic systems.

Open Access Original Research Article

Combined Effect of Vermicompost and Inorganic Fertilizer on Yield and Yield Contributing Characters of Tomato Plant

Kamrun Nahar, Md. Azizul Haque, Sushan Chowhan, Md. Khan Jahan Ali, Muhammad Maruf Husain, Md. Moshiur Rahman

Asian Journal of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, Page 76-82
DOI: 10.9734/ajsspn/2021/v8i130124

To evaluate the combined effect of organic and inorganic fertilizer a field experiment was conducted on tomato for yield and yield contributing character of fruits using vermicompost and different types of inorganic fertilizers at the farms of Ishurdi Sub-station of Bangladesh Institute of Nuclear agriculture (BINA) during Rabi season, 2020. One variety (Binatomato-11) and ten different treatments T1 = control (no fertilizer), T2 = 100% CF (Chemical Fertilizer), T3 = 70% CF, T4 = 70% CF + 1 t ha-1 VC (Vermicompost), T5 = 70% CF + 2 t ha-1 VC, T6 = 70% CF + 3 t ha-1 VC, T7 = 85% CF, T8 = 85% CF+ 1 t ha-1 VC, T9 = 85% CF+ 2 t ha-1 VC and T10 = 85% CF + 3 t ha-1 VC were used as experimental materials. The field trial was laid out in a randomized complete block design with three replications. Results showed that plant height (120.67 cm), number of fruits/plant (53.33), single fruit weight (95 gm), fruit yield (63.33 t/ha), number of fruit picking (5 times) were higher in T5 (70% Chemical fertilizers + 2t ha-1 VC) than control and other treatments. No significant difference was observed in days to 1st flowering response to the treatments. The study revealed that combined effect of vermicompost and inorganic fertilizers affected tomato plant significantly.

Open Access Original Research Article

Zinc Effects Yield of Mustard (Brassica campestris L.) Under Zero Tillage

Sushan Chowhan, Majharul Islam

Asian Journal of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, Page 83-91
DOI: 10.9734/ajsspn/2021/v8i130126

Zero or no tillage (ZT) mustard (Brassica campestris L.) cultivation is being increased and popularized these days in Bangladesh. But micronutrient management specially Zinc (Zn) with recommended dose of NPKSB fertilizers are poorly practiced in this type of cultivation. Micro nutrient deficiency is an emerging problem due continuous usage of soil resources (ground water, intensive cultivation etc.). Thus, to sustain and adopt the potential yield of modern mustard varieties all types fertilization is must. Basing on this problem an investigation was employed at Bangladesh Institute of Nuclear Agriculture (BINA) Sub-station, farm, Ishurdi, Pabna to find out definite dose of zinc application under zero tillage mustard cultivation for maximizing seed yield. The study was laid in a factorial Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with three replicates. Two modern varieties viz. Binasarisha-10 (V1) and BARI Sarisha-14 (V2) were tested with six level of Zn doses viz. 0.0 kg ha-1 (T1), 1.5 kg ha-1 (T2), 3.0 kg ha-1 (T3), 4.5 kg ha-1 (T4), 6.0 kg ha-1 (T5) and 7.5 kg ha-1 (T6). Seed were line broadcasted after harvesting T. aman rice during Rabi 2020 season. Data on yield parameters were collected after final harvesting and analyzed by Statistix 10. Results divulge that maximum straw and seed yield was attained with treatment combinations V1T4 (3.63 t ha-1) and V2T4 (2.24 t ha-1) with V2T3 (2.18 t ha-1). Whereas, the minimum was obtained from V2T5 (2.51 t ha-1) and V1T1 (0.99 t ha-1) along with V2T1 (1.01 t ha-1). Hence, soil application of Zn between 3 kg ha-1 to 4.5 kg ha-1 may give satisfactory yield for ZT farming.