Open Access Original Research Article

Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi Association with Some Selected Medicinal Plants

R. Abdullahi, J. S. Kwari, A. M. Zubairu

Asian Journal of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/ajsspn/2021/v8i130122

Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are group of fungi of the order Glomales that form symbiotic association with plant roots and enhance the uptake of nutrients, and improve plant growth and yield. This study was conducted to investigate the occurrence of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in the rhizospheres of some commonly grown medicinal plants in Maiduguri viz; Aloe vera, Mentha, Cymbopogon citrates and Ocimum gratissimum. The results revealed all the plants have formed mycorrhiza symbiosis. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi spores from five genera (Glomus, Acaulospora, Dentiscutata, Scutellispora and Gigaspora were isolated and identified. Cymbopogon citrates significantly recorded the highest total AMF spore counts (90±4.17) while Aloe vera recorded the least (54±2.28). Amongst the five mycorrhiza genus Glomus species were comparatively higher under all plant species, while, Dentiscutata and Gigaspora had the lowest spore counts. Highest percent root colonization   (72±4.23%) was recorded under Cymbopogon citrates and Aloe vera recorded the least (55.5 ±2.41%). The study confirmed mycorrhiza association with all the plants, however, AMF spore counts diversity varies with plant species. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi could be inoculated to soils with scanty or ineffective spores for enhanced plant nutrition and growth of medicinal plants.

Open Access Original Research Article

Function and Characterization of Fungal Communities in Chestnut Soils (Castanea crenata) of Kansai Region, Japan

Hosne Ara Dilzahan, Atsushi Okamura, Michelle Ann Calubaquib, Nolissa Delmo Organo, Masahide Kobayashi, Andre Freire Cruz

Asian Journal of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, Page 7-19
DOI: 10.9734/ajsspn/2021/v8i130123

Chestnut (Castanea crenata) is an important fruit crop in Japan, grown under three cultivation systems in Kansai region, which succumb to fungal root disease pathogens. The fungal community in soils of chestnut in these cultivation systems were characterized along with the potential of soil bacterial species as biological control agent against these root-invading fungi. Bacteria from the chestnut soil rhizosphere were identified and their ability to suppress diseases in vitro was evaluated. Bacteria DAC17225011 and DAC17225014 showed 99% similarity to Bacillus aryabhattai and Pseudomonas frederiksbergensis, respectively, which could suppress the growth of Armilaria mellea and Phytophtora cambivora, respectively, in vitro conditions. The assay in vivo indicated the positive effect of these bacteria on the reduction of disease infection spots in chestnut roots; however, no visible symptoms were detected aboveground. For microbial community analysis, chestnut soil was sampled from four locations (Wachi, Ayabe, Fukuchiyama and Sasayama) considering three management systems, conventional, organic and wild. The amplicon from the ITS region (The genomic library of the fungal detection in soils) was sequenced by Illumina MiSeq 250bp and used to analyze the fungal community in the sampled soil. Nectriaceae, which contains pathogenic fungi, was very common in all samples, but lower in wild areas. Ceratobasidiacea was also higher in conventional areas. For the symbiotic families, Hypocraceae and Russulaceae were typical in wild soils, whereas Amanitaceae was found in organic soils. The fungal community was clearly distinct in the wild system, differing from conventional and organic systems.

Open Access Original Research Article

Combined Effect of Vermicompost and Inorganic Fertilizer on Yield and Yield Contributing Characters of Tomato Plant

Kamrun Nahar, Md. Azizul Haque, Sushan Chowhan, Md. Khan Jahan Ali, Muhammad Maruf Husain, Md. Moshiur Rahman

Asian Journal of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, Page 20-26
DOI: 10.9734/ajsspn/2021/v8i130124

To evaluate the combined effect of organic and inorganic fertilizer a field experiment was conducted on tomato for yield and yield contributing character of fruits using vermicompost and different types of inorganic fertilizers at the farms of Ishurdi Sub-station of Bangladesh Institute of Nuclear agriculture (BINA) during Rabi season, 2020. One variety (Binatomato-11) and ten different treatments T1 = control (no fertilizer), T2 = 100% CF (Chemical Fertilizer), T3 = 70% CF, T4 = 70% CF + 1 t ha-1 VC (Vermicompost), T5 = 70% CF + 2 t ha-1 VC, T6 = 70% CF + 3 t ha-1 VC, T7 = 85% CF, T8 = 85% CF+ 1 t ha-1 VC, T9 = 85% CF+ 2 t ha-1 VC and T10 = 85% CF + 3 t ha-1 VC were used as experimental materials. The field trial was laid out in a randomized complete block design with three replications. Results showed that plant height (120.67 cm), number of fruits/plant (53.33), single fruit weight (95 gm), fruit yield (63.33 t/ha), number of fruit picking (5 times) were higher in T5 (70% Chemical fertilizers + 2t ha-1 VC) than control and other treatments. No significant difference was observed in days to 1st flowering response to the treatments. The study revealed that combined effect of vermicompost and inorganic fertilizers affected tomato plant significantly.

Open Access Original Research Article

Zinc Effects Yield of Mustard (Brassica campestris L.) Under Zero Tillage

Sushan Chowhan, Majharul Islam

Asian Journal of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, Page 27-35
DOI: 10.9734/ajsspn/2021/v8i130126

Zero or no tillage (ZT) mustard (Brassica campestris L.) cultivation is being increased and popularized these days in Bangladesh. But micronutrient management specially Zinc (Zn) with recommended dose of NPKSB fertilizers are poorly practiced in this type of cultivation. Micro nutrient deficiency is an emerging problem due continuous usage of soil resources (ground water, intensive cultivation etc.). Thus, to sustain and adopt the potential yield of modern mustard varieties all types fertilization is must. Basing on this problem an investigation was employed at Bangladesh Institute of Nuclear Agriculture (BINA) Sub-station, farm, Ishurdi, Pabna to find out definite dose of zinc application under zero tillage mustard cultivation for maximizing seed yield. The study was laid in a factorial Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with three replicates. Two modern varieties viz. Binasarisha-10 (V1) and BARI Sarisha-14 (V2) were tested with six level of Zn doses viz. 0.0 kg ha-1 (T1), 1.5 kg ha-1 (T2), 3.0 kg ha-1 (T3), 4.5 kg ha-1 (T4), 6.0 kg ha-1 (T5) and 7.5 kg ha-1 (T6). Seed were line broadcasted after harvesting T. aman rice during Rabi 2020 season. Data on yield parameters were collected after final harvesting and analyzed by Statistix 10. Results divulge that maximum straw and seed yield was attained with treatment combinations V1T4 (3.63 t ha-1) and V2T4 (2.24 t ha-1) with V2T3 (2.18 t ha-1). Whereas, the minimum was obtained from V2T5 (2.51 t ha-1) and V1T1 (0.99 t ha-1) along with V2T1 (1.01 t ha-1). Hence, soil application of Zn between 3 kg ha-1 to 4.5 kg ha-1 may give satisfactory yield for ZT farming.